Biological Cybernetics

, Volume 62, Issue 5, pp 441–451 | Cite as

Changes with background in the linear model of the transient visual system

  • A. C. den Brinker
Article

Abstract

There is evidence that the transient channel of temporal human vision behaves as a linear filter for small excursions around a steady background level. The linear filter characteristics depend on the background level. From experimentally obtained impulse responses of the transient channel the linear filter can be modelled and parametrized. This has been done for two different background levels. The two sets of estimated parameters at these two levels show a shift in the parameters which can be described by a single multiplication factor. This result was extrapolated to arbitrary background levels by postulating that each change in background level can be described by a multiplication factor. This leads to an assumption on the variation of the parameters of the linear filter of the transient channel with changes in the background level. This assumption is tested by simulating the system for different parameter sets of the linear filter. The simulations give a good agreement with experimental data on threshold-versus-duration curves and de Lange curves. The (minor) quantitative differences in simulations and experimental data can be explained.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bard Y (1974) Nonlinear parameter estimation. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Blommaert FJJ, Roufs JAJ (1987) Prediction of thresholds and latency on the basis of experimentally determined impulse responses. Biol Cybern 56:329–344Google Scholar
  3. Breitmeyer BG, Ganz L (1976) Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression and information processing. Psychol Rev 83:1–36Google Scholar
  4. Brinker AC den (1989) A comparison of results from parameter estimations of impulse responses of the transient visual system. Biol Cybern 61:139–151Google Scholar
  5. Brinker AC den, Roufs JAJ (1989) Nonlinear parameter estimation applied to psychophysically measured impulse responses. IEEE Trans BME-36:346–354Google Scholar
  6. Daly SJ, Normann RA (1985) Temporal information processing in cones: effects of light adaptation on temporal summation and modulation. Vision Res 25:1197–1206Google Scholar
  7. Georgeson MA (1987) Temporal properties of spatial contrast vision. Vision Res 27:765–780Google Scholar
  8. Gorea A, Tyler CW (1986) New look at Bloch's law. J Opt Soc Am A 3:52–61Google Scholar
  9. Graham CH, Kemp EH (1938) Brightness discrimination as a function of the duration of the increment sensitivity. J Gen Physiol 21:635–650Google Scholar
  10. Green M (1984) Masking by light and the sustained-transient dichotomy. Percept Psychophys 35:519–535Google Scholar
  11. Kelly DH (1961) Visual responses to time-dependent stimuli. I. Amplitude sensitivity measurements. J Opt Soc Am 51:422–429Google Scholar
  12. Kelly DH (1972) Adaptation effects on spatio-temporal sine-wave thresholds. Vision Res 12:89–101Google Scholar
  13. Kelly DH, Burbeck CA (1987) Further evidence for a broadband, isotropic mechanism sensitive to high-velocity stimuli. Vision Res 27:1527–1537Google Scholar
  14. Koenderink JJ, Grind WA van de, Bouman MA (1971) Foveal information processing at photopic luminances. Kybernetik 8:128–144Google Scholar
  15. Krauskopf J (1980) Discrimination and detection of changes in luminance. Vision Res 20:671–677Google Scholar
  16. Kulikowski JJ, Tolhurst DJ (1973) Psychophysical evidence for sustained and transient detectors in human vision. J Physiol 232:149–162Google Scholar
  17. Kunt M, Ikonomopoulos A, Kocher M (1985) Second-generation image coding techniques. Proc IEEE 73:549–574Google Scholar
  18. Lukas FXJ, Budrikis ZL (1982) Picture quality prediction based on a visual model. IEEE Trans Commun COM-30:1679–1692Google Scholar
  19. Martens JBOS, Majoor GMM (1989) The perceptual relevance of scale-space image coding. Signal Process 17:353–364Google Scholar
  20. Naka K-I (1982) The cells horizontal cells talk to. Vision Res 22:653–660Google Scholar
  21. Pearlman WA (1978) A visual system model and a new distortion measure in the context of image processing. J Opt Soc Am. 68:374–386Google Scholar
  22. Ridder H de (1987) Dynamic properties of human brightness perception. Dr. Thesis Eindhoven University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  23. Roufs JAJ (1972) Dynamic properties of vision-I. Experimental relationships between flicker and flash thresholds. Vision Res 12:261–278Google Scholar
  24. Roufs JAJ (1974a) Dynamic properties of vision-IV. Thresholds of decremental flashes, incremental flashes and doublets in relation to flicker fusion. Vision Res 14:831–851Google Scholar
  25. Roufs JAJ (1974b) Dynamic properties of vision-VI. Stochastic threshold fluctuations and their effect on flash-to-flicker sensitivity ratio. Vision Res 14:871–888Google Scholar
  26. Roufs JAJ, Blommaert FJJ (1981) Temporal impulse and step responses of the human eye obtained psychophysically by means of a drift-correcting perturbation technique. Vision Res 21:1203–1221Google Scholar
  27. Roufs JAJ, Bouma H (1980) Towards linking perception research and image quality. Proc SID 21:247–270Google Scholar
  28. Roufs JAJ, Pellegrino van Stuyvenberg JA (1976) Gain curve of the eye to subliminal sinusoidal modulation of light. IPO Annu Prog Rep 11:56–63Google Scholar
  29. Roufs JAJ, Pellegrino van Stuyvenberg JA (1979) On the Broca-Sulzer effect: concerning the brightness of time dependent stimuli. IPO Annu Prog Rep 14:79–87Google Scholar
  30. Roufs JAJ, Piceni HAL, Pellegrino van Stuyvenberg JA (1984) Phase and gain of the visual transient system. IPO Annu Prog Rep 19:49–56Google Scholar
  31. Shapley R, Enroth-Cugell C (1984) Visual adaptation and retinal gain control. In: Osborne NN, Chader GJ (eds) Progress in retinal research, vol 3. Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  32. Sperling G (1970) Model of visual adaptation and contrast detection. Percept Psychophys 8:143–157Google Scholar
  33. Stork DG, Falk DS (1987) Temporal impulse responses from flicker sensitivities. J Opt Soc Am A4:1130–1135Google Scholar
  34. Swanson WH, Ueno T, Smith VC, Pokorny J (1987) Temporal modulation sensitivity and pulse-detection thresholds for chromatic and luminance perturbations. J Opt Soc Am A4:1992–2005Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. C. den Brinker
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Interdepartmental Group Retina ModelsIPO Institute for Perception ResearchEindhovenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.EE DepartmentEindhoven University of TechnologyEindhovenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations