Advertisement

Biological Cybernetics

, Volume 70, Issue 3, pp 247–253 | Cite as

Stimulus sequence effects on human express saccades described by a Markov model

  • Martin Jüttner
  • Werner Wolf
Article

Abstract

Express saccades predominantly occur in experiments employing the gap paradigm where the target onset is separated from the fixation point offset by a blank period. Their relative frequency is distinctly influenced by catch trials (i.e. trials without a saccadic target) mixed into the stream of regular target trials. Generalizing this concept for other stimulus uncertainties (direction, amplitude), we found that the preparation time of a saccade depends on both the type of uncertainty used and the sequence of trial type (e.g., target vs catch, left vs right) in the experiment. This stimulus sequence effect is most prominent for catch trials. A similar but less pronounced effect can still be observed in the case of direction uncertainty but not in that of amplitude uncertainty. A two-state Markov process model is proposed which is based on the dichotomy of express and regular saccades in the gap paradigm. According to this model the actual state of the saccadic system, which determines the type of saccade just in preparation, depends on the “trial history”. The implications for models of saccade programming are discussed.

Keywords

Markov Model Trial Type Catch Trial Target Onset Target Trial 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Becker W, Jürgens, R (1979) An analysis of the saccadic system by means of double step stimuli. Vision Res 19:967–983Google Scholar
  2. Boch R, Fischer B, Ramsperger E (1984) Express saccades of the monkey: reaction time versus intensity, size, duration and eccentricity of their targets. Exp Brain Res 55:223–231Google Scholar
  3. Deubel H (1984) Wechselwirkung von Sensorik und Motorik bei sakkadischen Augenbewegungen. Thesis, Technical University MunichGoogle Scholar
  4. Deubel H, Wolf W, Hauske G (1986) Adaptive gain control of saccadic eye movements. Hum Neurobiol 5:245–253Google Scholar
  5. Falmagne JC, Cohen SP, Dwivedi A (1975). Two-choice reactions as an ordered memory scanning process. In:Rabbit P, Dornic S (eds) Attention and performance V. Academic Press, New York, pp 296–344Google Scholar
  6. Fischer B (1987) The preparation of visually guided saccades. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 106:1–35Google Scholar
  7. Fischer B, Boch R (1983) Saccadic eye movements after extremely short reaction times in the rhesus monkey. Brain Res 260:21–26Google Scholar
  8. Fischer B, Breitmeyer B (1987) Mechanisms of visual attention revealed by saccadic eye movements. Neurophysiologica 25:73–83Google Scholar
  9. Fischer B, Ramsperger E (1984) Human express saccades:extremely short reaction times of goal directed eye movements. Exp Brain Res 57:191–195Google Scholar
  10. Fischer B, Ramsperger E (1986) Human express saccades:effects of randomization and daily practice. Exp Brain Res 64:569–578Google Scholar
  11. Fischer B, Weber H (1990) Saccadic reaction times of dyslexic and age-matched subjects. Perception 19:805–818Google Scholar
  12. Fischer B, Weber H (1993) Express saccades and visual attention. Behav Brain Sci (in press)Google Scholar
  13. Holst E von, Mittelstaedt H (1950) Das Reafferenzprinzip. Wechselwirkungen zwischen Zentralnervensystem und Peripherie. Naturwissenschaften 37:464–476Google Scholar
  14. Iwaski S (1990) Facilitation of reaction times with gap paradigm:comparison of manual and saccadic responses. Ergonomics 33:833–850Google Scholar
  15. Jüttner M, Wolf W (1992) Occurrence of human express saccade depends on stimulus uncertainty and stimulus sequence. Exp Brain Res 89:678–681Google Scholar
  16. Kowler E, Martins AJ, Pavel M (1984) The effect of expectations on slow oculomotor control. IV. Anticipatory smooth eye movements depend on prior target motions. Vision Res 24:197–210Google Scholar
  17. McLachlan GJ, Basford KE (1988) Mixture models. Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Mayfrank L, Mobashery M, Kimmig H, Fischer B (1986) The role of fixation in the occurrence of express saccades in man. Eur Arch Psychiatr Neurol Sci 235:269–275Google Scholar
  19. Robinson DA (1973) Models of the saccadic eye movement control system. Kybernetik 14:71, 73Google Scholar
  20. Robinson DA (1975) Oculomotor control signals. In:Lennerstrand G, Bach-Y-Rita P (eds) Basic mechanisms of ocular motility and their clinical implications. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 337–374Google Scholar
  21. Saslow MG (1967) Latency for saccadic eye movement. J. Opt Soc Am[A] 57:1024–1029Google Scholar
  22. Vossius G (1960) Das System der Augenbewegung. Z Biol 112:27–57Google Scholar
  23. Young LR, Stark L (1963) Variable feedback experiments testing a sampled data model for eye tracking movements. IEEE Trans Prof Tech Group Hum Factors Electronics 4:38–51Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Jüttner
    • 1
  • Werner Wolf
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Medizinische Psychologie der Universität MünchenMünchenGermany
  2. 2.Institut für Mathematik und DatenverarbeitungUniversität der Bundeswehr MünchenNeubibergGermany

Personalised recommendations