Human Genetics

, Volume 88, Issue 3, pp 344–346 | Cite as

Distribution of ADH2 and ALDH2 genotypes in different populations

  • H. W. Goedde
  • D. P. Agarwal
  • G. Fritze
  • D. Meier-Tackmann
  • S. Singh
  • G. Beckmann
  • K. Bhatia
  • L. Z. Chen
  • B. Fang
  • R. Lisker
  • Y. K. Paik
  • F. Rothhammer
  • N. Saha
  • B. Segal
  • L. M. Srivastava
  • A. Czeizel
Short Communications

Summary

The distribution of the human liver alcohol dehydrogenase, ADH2, and aldehyde dehydrogenase, ALDH2, genotypes in 21 different populations comprising Mongoloids, Caucasoids, and Negroids was determined by hybridization of the amplified genomic DNA with allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. Whereas the frequency of the ADH12allele was found to be relatively high in the Caucasoids, Mexican Mestizos, Brazilian Indios, Swedish Lapps, Papua New Guineans and Negroids, the frequency of the ADH22gene was considerably higher in the Mongoloids and Australian Aborigines. The atypical ALDH2 gene (ALDH22) was found to be extremely rare in Caucasoids, Negroids, Papua New Guineans, Australian Aborigines and Aurocanians (South Chile). In contrast, this mutant gene was found to be widely prevalent among the Mongoloids. Individuals possessing the abnormal ALDH2 gene show alcohol-related sensitivity responses (e.g. facial flushing), have the tendency not to be habitual drinkers, and apparently suffer less from alcoholism and alcohol-related liver disease.

References

  1. Agarwal DP, Goedde HW (1990a) Human aldehyde dehydrogenases: genetic implications in alcohol sensitivity, alcohol-drinking habits, and alcoholism. In: Cloninger CR, Begleiter H (eds) Banbury report 33: Genetics and biology of alcoholism. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, pp 253–263Google Scholar
  2. Agarwal DP, Goedde HW (1990b) Alcohol metabolism, alcohol intolerance and alcoholism. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Goedde HW, Agarwal DP (1987) Genetics and alcoholism. Liss, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Goedde HW, Agarwal DP (1989) Acetaldehyde metabolism: genetic variation and physiological implications. In: Goedde HW, Agarwal DP (eds) Alcoholism: biomedical and genetic aspects. Pergamon Press, New York, pp 21–56Google Scholar
  5. Goedde HW, Harada S, Agarwal DP (1979) Racial differences in alcohol sensitivity: a new hypothesis. Hum Genet 51:331–334Google Scholar
  6. Goedde HW, Agarwal DP, Harada S (1986) Aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in North American, South American and Mexican Indians. Am J Hum Genet 38:395–399Google Scholar
  7. Goedde HW, Singh S, Agarwal DP, Fritze G, Stapel K, Paik YK (1989) Genotyping of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase in blood samples using allele-specific oligonucleotides. Hum Genet 81:305–307Google Scholar
  8. Harada S, Agarwal DP, Goedde HW (1985) Aldehyde dehydro-genase polymorphism and alcohol metabolism in alcoholics. Alcohol 2:391–392Google Scholar
  9. Hwu H-G, Yeh Y-L, Wang J-D (1991) Risk factors of alcoholism among Taiwan aborigines: implications for etiological models and the nosology of alcoholism. Acta Psychiatr Scand 83:267–272Google Scholar
  10. Meier-Tackmann D, Leonhardt RA, Agarwal DP, Goedde HW (1990) Effect of acute ethanol drinking on alcohol metabolism in subjects with different ADH and ALDH genotypes. Alcohol 7:413–418Google Scholar
  11. Peters TJ, MacPherson AJS, Ward RJ, Yoshida A (1990) Acquired and genetic deficiencies of cytosolic acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. In: Cloninger CR, Begleiter H (eds) Banbury report 33: Genetics and biology of alcoholism. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, pp 265–276Google Scholar
  12. Singh S, Fritze G, Fang B, Harada S, Paik YK, Eckey R, Agarwal DP, Goedde HW (1989) Inheritance of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase: genotyping in Chinese, Japanese and South Korean families reveals a dominance of the mutant allele. Hum Genet 83:118–121Google Scholar
  13. Shibuya A, Yoshida A (1988) Genotypes of alcohol metabolizing enzymes in Japanese with alcohol liver diseases: a strong association of the usual Caucasian-type aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDHsk1/2) with the disease. Am J Hum Genet 43:744–748Google Scholar
  14. Thomasson HR, Edenberg HJ, Crabb DW, Mai X-L, Jerome RE, Li T-K, Wang S-P, Lin Y-T, Lu R-B, Yin S-J (1991) Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase genotypes and alcoholism in Chinese men. Am J Hum Genet 48:677–681Google Scholar
  15. Yamashita I, Ohmori T, Koyama T, Mori H, Boyadjive S, Kielholz P, Gastpar M, Moussaoui D, Bouzekraoui M, Sethi BB, Reyes BV, Varanian ME, Fuente JR de la, German GA, Bohacek N, Sartorious N, Morozov P, Prilpko LL (1990) Biological study of alcohol dependence syndrome with reference to ethnic difference: report of a WHO collaborative study. Jpn J Psychiatry 44:79–84Google Scholar
  16. Yeh E-K, Hwu H-G, Chen C-C, Yeh Y-L (1989) Alcoholism: a low risk disorder for Chinese? Community surveys in Taiwan. In: Sun GY, Rudeen PK, Wood WG, Wei YH, Sun AY (eds) Molecular mechanisms of alcohol. Neurobiology and metabolism. Humana Press, Clifton, NJ, pp 335–355Google Scholar
  17. Wolff PH (1972) Ethnic differences in alcohol sensitivity. Science 175:449–450Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. W. Goedde
    • 1
  • D. P. Agarwal
    • 1
  • G. Fritze
    • 1
  • D. Meier-Tackmann
    • 1
  • S. Singh
    • 1
  • G. Beckmann
    • 2
  • K. Bhatia
    • 3
  • L. Z. Chen
    • 4
  • B. Fang
    • 5
  • R. Lisker
    • 6
  • Y. K. Paik
    • 7
  • F. Rothhammer
    • 8
  • N. Saha
    • 9
  • B. Segal
    • 10
  • L. M. Srivastava
    • 11
  • A. Czeizel
    • 12
  1. 1.Institut für Humangenetik der UniversitätUniversität HamburgHamburg 54Germany
  2. 2.Department of Medical GeneticsUniversity of UmeaUmeaSweden
  3. 3.Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical ResearchGorokaPapua, New Guinea
  4. 4.Cytogenetics UnitAdelaide Children's HospitalNorth Adelaide
  5. 5.Institute of Basic Medical SciencesPekingChina
  6. 6.Department of GeneticsNational Institute of NutritionMexico CityMexico
  7. 7.Department of GeneticsHanyang University School of MedicineSeoulSouth Korea
  8. 8.Department of GeneticsUniversity of ChileSantiagoChile
  9. 9.Division of Human Genetics, Department of PediatricsNational University HospitalSingapore
  10. 10.School of Health SciencesUniversity of AlaskaAnchorageUSA
  11. 11.Department of BiochemistryAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia
  12. 12.Department of Human GeneticsNational Institute of HygieneBudapestHungary

Personalised recommendations