Space Science Reviews

, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp 279–334 | Cite as

Noctilucent clouds

  • M. Gadsden


Noctilucent clouds appear during the summertime at high latitudes near the top of the mesosphere. In this review, the observational facts about them, obtained from ground level, by rocket sounding and from orbiting spacecraft, are reviewed. The data are not sufficiently clear and unambiguous to permit dogmatic assertion about the origin and nature of the clouds. They seem to be ice particles nucleated at very low pressures and temperatures by either meteoric smoke or by atmospheric ions. Wavepatterns in the clouds may well result from quite close relations between the troposphere and the mesosphere. The very existence of the clouds leads to difficulties in explaining why there is so much water vapour at this great height in the atmosphere. To try to predict the microscopic behaviour of the cloud particles leads one into assessment of the relative importance of radiometer effects, radiation balance, Brownian movement, electric polarization and the influence of Coulomb attraction on the growth of large clustered ions. Finally, a list is given of published sources of observational data.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


The following references each contain a number of papers, usually from the U.S.S.R., dealing with noctilucent clouds:

  1. MGG Informachionii Bulletin, No. 7, Akad. Nauk SSR (Moscow), 1959.Google Scholar
  2. Trudy Sovechanya po Serebristim Oblakam I (Tartu), 1959.Google Scholar
  3. Meshdunarodnii Geofizichestii God, Leningradskova Universiteta, 1960.Google Scholar
  4. Issledovaniya Serebristikh Oblakov, Leningradskova Universiteta, 1960.Google Scholar
  5. Trudy Sovechanya po Serebristim Oblakam III (Tallinn), 1962.Google Scholar
  6. Meteorologicheskiye Issledovaniya, No. 6, Akad. Nauk SSR (Moscow), 1963.Google Scholar
  7. Meteorologicheskiye Issledovaniya, No. 12, Nauka (Moscow), 1966.Google Scholar
  8. Nabludenya Serebristikh Oblakov, Nauka (Moscow), 1967.Google Scholar
  9. Khvostikov, I. A. and Witt, G.: Serebristiya Oblaka — Noctilucent Clouds, Viniti (Moscow), 1967.Google Scholar
  10. Fizika Mezosphemikh (Serebristikh) Oblakov, Zinatnye (Riga), 1970; translation to English from Israel Program for Scientific Translation (Jerusalem), 1973.Google Scholar
  11. Noctilucent Clouds — Optical Properties (Tallinn), 1973.Google Scholar
  12. Meteorologicheskiye Issledovaniya, No. 22, Nauka (Moscow), 1975.Google Scholar
  13. Materiali Issledovaniya Mezosferikh Oblakov (Supplement to No. 22, above) Viniti (Moscow), 1975.Google Scholar
  14. Opticheskiye Issledovaniya Izducheniya Atmosferi, Polyanikh Siyanii i Serebristikh Oblakov s Borta Orbital'noi Nauchnoi Stanchii ‘Salyut-4’, Akad. Nauk SSR (Tartu), 1977.Google Scholar
  15. Issledovaniya Atmosferno-Optichestikh Yavlenii c Borta Orbital'noi Nauchnoi Stanchii ‘Salyut-4’, Akad. Nauk SSR (Tartu), 1979.Google Scholar
  16. Atmosferno-Opticheskiye Yavleniya po Nabludeniyam c Orbitalinikh Nauchnikh Stanchii ‘Salyut’, Akad. Nauk. SSR (Tartu) 1981.Google Scholar

References in the text:

  1. Anderson, J. G. and Donahue, T. M.: 1975, J. Atmosph. Terr. Phys. 37, 865.Google Scholar
  2. Anon.: 1885, Symon's Monthly Met. Mag. 20, 96.Google Scholar
  3. Arnold, F. and Joos, W.: 1979, Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 763.Google Scholar
  4. Arnold, F. and Krankowsky, D.: 1977, Nature 268, 218.Google Scholar
  5. Asano, S. and Yamamoto, G.: 1975, Appl. Optics 14, 29.Google Scholar
  6. Astapovich, I. S.: 1961, Trudy VI soveschaniya po serebristym oblakam (Riga), pp. 49–92.Google Scholar
  7. Avakyan, E, V., Avaste, O. A., Willmann, Ch. I., Germashevsky, M., Ivanchenkov, A. S., Klimuk, P. I., Kovalyonok, V. V., and Lazarev, A. I.: 1981, Atmosf.-Optich. Yablen. Nabluch. Orbit. Nauch. Stanchii ‘Salyut’, pp. 52–57, (Tartu).Google Scholar
  8. Avaste, O. A., Alekseyev, A. M., Veismann, U. K., Willmann, Ch. I., Klimuk, P. I., Koksharov, I. I., Lazarev, A. I., Sevastyanov, V. I., Sergeyevich, V. N., Fedorova, E. O., and Eerme, K. A.: 1977, Opt.Issled. Izpuch. Atmosf. Pol. Siyanii i Serebr. Oblakov Borta Orbit. Nauch. Stanch. ‘Salyut-4’, pp. 67–78, (Tartu).Google Scholar
  9. Avaste, O. A., Fedynsky, A. V., Grechko, G. M., Sevastyanov, V. I., and Willmann, Ch. I.: 1980, Pageophys. 118, 528.Google Scholar
  10. Avaste, O. A., Willmann, Ch. I., Grechko, G. M., and Romanenko, Yu. V.: 1981, Atmosf.-Optich. Yablen. Nabluch. Orbit. Nauch. Stanchii ‘Salyut’, pp. 139–146, (Tartu).Google Scholar
  11. Backhouse, T. W.: 1885, Symons's Monthly Met. Mag. 20, 133.Google Scholar
  12. Backhouse, T. W.: 1886, Nature 34, 386.Google Scholar
  13. Baibulatov, F. Kh. and Ivaniya, S. P.: 1976, Izv. Atmosf. Okean, Fiz. 12, 523.Google Scholar
  14. Baibulatov, F. Kh. and Ivaniya, S. P.: 1977, Izv. Atmosf. Okean. Fiz. 13, 1212.Google Scholar
  15. Bandermann, L. W. and Kemp, J. C.: 1973, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 162, 367.Google Scholar
  16. Barber, P. and Yeh, C.: 1975, Appl. Opt. 14, 2864.Google Scholar
  17. de Bary, E. and Rossler, F.: 1974, Beitr. Phys. Atmosph. 47, 261.Google Scholar
  18. Belyaev, B. I., Grechko, G. M., Gubarev, A. A., Kiselvsky, L. I., Klimuk, P. I., Koksharov, I. I., Lovchikova, L. P., Plyuta, V. E., Sevatyanov, V. I., Bergeyevich, N. V., and Yanovsky, A. F.: 1979a, Issled. Atmosf. Optich. Yavch. Borta Orbit. Nauch. Stanch. ‘Salyut-4’, pp. 167–182, (Tartu).Google Scholar
  19. Belyaev, B. I., Kiselevsky, L. I., Klimuk, P. I., Koksharov, I. I., Lovchikova, L. P., Plyuta, V. E., Sevastyanov, V. I., and Sergeyevich, V. N.: 1979b, J. Appl. Spectroscopy 30, 471.Google Scholar
  20. Belyaev, B. I., Willmann, Ch. I., Kiselevsky, L. I., Klimuk, P. I., Lovchikova, L. P., Plyuta, V. I., Sevastyanov, V. I., and Yanovsky, A. F.: 1981, Atmosf.-Optich. Yablen. Nabluch. Orbit. Nauch. Stanchii ‘Salyut’, pp.58–69, (Tartu).Google Scholar
  21. Benech, B. and Dessens, J.: 1974, J. Geophys. Res. 79, 1299.Google Scholar
  22. Bronshten, V. A.: 1970, in J. Ikaunieks (ed.), Fiz. Mezo. (Serebr.) Oblakov, pp. 61–68, Riga.Google Scholar
  23. Bronshten, V. A. and Grishin, N. I.: 1970, in I. A. Khvostikov (ed.), Serebristye oblaka, Izdatel'stvo ‘Nauka’ (Moscow); English translation by H. Olaru and D. Lederman: 1976, Noctilucent Clouds, Keterpress (Jerusalem).Google Scholar
  24. Burov, M. I.: 1959, Trudy Sov. Serebristii Oblakov 1 (Tartu), 92–111.Google Scholar
  25. Burov, M. I. 1966, Meteorolog. Issl. 12, 33.Google Scholar
  26. Burov, M. I. 1967, Serebristie Oblaka (Moscow), pp. 200–207.Google Scholar
  27. Byrne, F. D. 1964, typescript, undated, found in papers of James Paton.Google Scholar
  28. Clarke, D. and Grainger, J. F.: 1971, Polarized Light and Optical Measurement, Pergamon (Oxford).Google Scholar
  29. COSPAR: 1965, CIRA 1965; COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere 1965, North-Holland Publishing (Amsterdam).Google Scholar
  30. Currie, B. W.: 1962, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Canada 56, 141.Google Scholar
  31. D'Angelo, N. and Ungstrup, E.: 1976, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 1777.Google Scholar
  32. Deirmendjian, D. and Vestine. E. H.: 1959, Planet. Space Sci 1, 146.Google Scholar
  33. Dietze, G.: 1973, Gerland Beitr. Geophysik 82, 175.Google Scholar
  34. Dirikis, M.: 1962, Trudy Sov. Serebristii Oblakov 3 (Tallin), pp. 164–168.Google Scholar
  35. Dirikis, M. A., Evdokimenko, S. V., and Franzman, Yu. L.: 1966, Meteorolog. Issl. 12, 47.Google Scholar
  36. Donahue, T. M. and Guenther, B.: 1973, J. Atmosph. Sci. 30, 515.Google Scholar
  37. Donahue, T. M., Guenther, B., and Blamont, J. E.: 1972, J. Atmosph. Sci. 29, 1205.Google Scholar
  38. Einstein, A.: 1906, Ann. Physik (Ser. 4) 19, 371.Google Scholar
  39. Eisenberg, D. and Kauzmann: 1969, The Structure and Properties of Water, Clarendon Press (Oxford).Google Scholar
  40. Epstein, P. S.: 1924, Phys. Rev. 23, 710.Google Scholar
  41. Farlow, N. H., Ferry, G. V., and Blanchard, M. B.: 1970, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 6736.Google Scholar
  42. Farlow, N. H. and Ferry, G. V.: 1972, Space Res. 12, 369.Google Scholar
  43. Fast, N. P. and Fast, W. H.: 1981, personal letter dated 1st December 1981.Google Scholar
  44. Ferry, G. V. and Farlow, N. H.: 1972, Space Res. 12, 381.Google Scholar
  45. Fechtig, H. and Feuerstein, M.: 1970, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 6751.Google Scholar
  46. Fechtig, H., Feuerstein, M., and Rauser, P.: 1971, Space Res. 11, 335.Google Scholar
  47. Fiocco, G. and Grams, G.: 1969, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 2453.Google Scholar
  48. Fiocco, G. and Grams, G.: 1971, J. Atmosph. Terr. Phys. 33, 815.Google Scholar
  49. Fiocco, G., Grams, G., and Visconti, G.: 1975, J. Atmosph. Terr. Phys. 37, 1327.Google Scholar
  50. Fogle, B.: 1964, Geophys. Inst. Rep. UAG R-158, University of Alaska.Google Scholar
  51. Fogle, B.: 1966a, Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 47, 781.Google Scholar
  52. Fogle, B.: 1966b, Geophys. Inst. Rep. UAG R-177, University of Alaska.Google Scholar
  53. Fogle, B. and Haurwitz, B.: 1966, Space Sci. Rev. 6, 278.Google Scholar
  54. Fogle, B. and Rees, M. H.: 1972, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 720.Google Scholar
  55. Francis, R. J., Bennett, J. M., and Seedsman, D. L.: 1966, Nature 211, 398.Google Scholar
  56. Gadsden, M.: 1975, Ann. Geophys. 31, 507.Google Scholar
  57. Gadsden, M.: 1977a, Ann. Geophys. 33, 357.Google Scholar
  58. Gadsden, M.: 1977b, Ann. Geophys. 33, 363.Google Scholar
  59. Gadsden, M.: 1978, J. Geophys. Res. 83, 1155.Google Scholar
  60. Gadsden, M.: 1981, Planet. Space Sci. 29, 1079.Google Scholar
  61. Gadsden, M., Rothwell, P., and Taylor, M. J.: 1979, Nature 278, 628.Google Scholar
  62. Giauque, W. F. and Stout, J. W.: 1936, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 58, 1144.Google Scholar
  63. Goldberg, R. A. and Witt, G.: 1977, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2619.Google Scholar
  64. Grahn, S. and Witt, G.: 1971, Report AP-4, Institute of Meteorology, University of Stockholm.Google Scholar
  65. Grishin, N. I.: 1956, Byull. Astron. Geodez. Obsh. 19, 3.Google Scholar
  66. Grishin, N. I.: 1958, Byull. Vses. Astmn.-Geodez. Obsh. 21 (28), 52.Google Scholar
  67. Grishin, N. L: 1960, Nekot. Prob. Meteorologii, No. 1, pp. 117–119.Google Scholar
  68. Grishin, N. I.: 1967a, Nabluch. Serebr. Oblakov, pp. 5–34, Nauka (Moscow).Google Scholar
  69. Grishin, N. L: 1967b, Noctilucent Clouds Int. Symp. (Tallinn, 1966), pp. 193–199, Moscow.Google Scholar
  70. Grishin, N. I.: 1969, Astron. Vestnik 3, 108.Google Scholar
  71. Hallgren, D. S., Hemenway, C. L., Mohnen, V. A., and Tackett, C. D.: 1973, Space Res. 13, 1099.Google Scholar
  72. Hamilton, R. A.: 1964, Met. Mag. 93, 201.Google Scholar
  73. Harrison, A. W.: 1973, Can. J. Phys. 51, 373.Google Scholar
  74. Haurwitz, B.: 1964, Geophysical Institute Report UAG-R160, University of Alaska.Google Scholar
  75. Haurwitz, B. and Fogle, B.: 1969, Deep Sea Res. suppl. 16, 85.Google Scholar
  76. Hemenway, C. L. and Hallgren, D. S.: 1970, Space Res. 10, 272.Google Scholar
  77. Hemenway, C. L., Fullam, E. F., Skrivanek, R. A., Soberman, R. K., and Witt, G.: 1964a, Tellus 16, 96.Google Scholar
  78. Hemenway, C. L., Soberman, R. K., and Witt, G.: 1964b, Tellus 16, 84.Google Scholar
  79. Hemenway, C. L., Hallgren, D. S., and Schmalberger, D. C.: 1972, Nature 238, 256.Google Scholar
  80. Hines, C. O.: 1968, J. Atmosph. Sci. 25, 937.Google Scholar
  81. Hobbs, P. V.: 1974, Ice Physics, pp. 441, 462; Clarendon Press (Oxford).Google Scholar
  82. van de Hulst, H. C.: 1957, Light Scattering by Small Panicles, Chapman and Hall (London).Google Scholar
  83. Hummel, J. R.: 1975, Ionos. Res. Lab. Rep. PSU-IRL-IR-52 (Pennsylvania State University).Google Scholar
  84. Hummel, J. R.: 1977, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 1893.Google Scholar
  85. Hummel, J. R. and Olivero, J. J.: 1976, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 3177; and microfiche J76–005.Google Scholar
  86. Hunten, D. M., Turco, R. P., and Toon, O. B.: 1980, J. Atmosph. Sci. 37, 1342.Google Scholar
  87. Izakov, M. N., Kokin, G. A., and Perov, S. P.: 1967, Meteorol. i Gidrol. 12, 70.Google Scholar
  88. Jesse, O.: 1889, Himmel Erde 1, 263.Google Scholar
  89. Jesse, O.: 1896, Astron. Nacht. 140, 161.Google Scholar
  90. Johannessen, A. and Thrane, E. V.: 1974, Indian J. Radio Space Phys. 3, 128.Google Scholar
  91. Kerker, M.: 1969, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation, Academic Press (New York).Google Scholar
  92. Kilfoyle, B. P.: 1968, Nature 218, 154.Google Scholar
  93. Kropotkina, E. P. and Shefov, N. N.: 1975, Izv. Atmosf. Okean. Fiz. 11, 1184.Google Scholar
  94. Latimer, P. and Barber, P.: 1978, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 63, 310.Google Scholar
  95. Lazarev, A. I. and Leonov, A. A.: 1973, Opt. Tech. 40, 410.Google Scholar
  96. Leslie, R. C.: 1885, Nature 32, 245.Google Scholar
  97. Linscott, I., Hemenway, C. L., and Witt, G.: 1964, Tellus 16, 110.Google Scholar
  98. Ludlam, F. H.: 1957, Tellus 9, 340.Google Scholar
  99. Meinel, A. B., Middlehurst, B. M., and Whitaker, E.: 1963, Science 141, 1176.Google Scholar
  100. Olivero, J. J. and Bevilacqua, R. M.: 1979, Space Res. 19, 165.Google Scholar
  101. Olivero, J. J., Gibbins, C. J., Bevilacqua, R. M., Swartz, P. R., and Thacker, D. L.: 1981, Int. Assoc. Geomag.Aeron. 4th Scientific Assembly, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  102. Orr, C. and Keng, E. Y. A.: 1964, J. Atmosph. Sci. 21, 475.Google Scholar
  103. Packer, D. M. and Packer, I. G.: 1977, Appl. Opt. 16, 983.Google Scholar
  104. Paton, J.: 1949, Met. Mag. 78, 354.Google Scholar
  105. Paton, J.: 1950, Proc. Phys. Soc. 63, 1039.Google Scholar
  106. Paton, J.: 1951, Nature 168, 487.Google Scholar
  107. Paton, J.: 1953, Proc. Met. Conf. (Toronto), pp. 31–33.Google Scholar
  108. Paton, J.: 1964, Met. Mag. 93, 161.Google Scholar
  109. Radford, H. E., Litvak, M. M., Gottleib, C. A., Gottleib, E. W., Rosenthal, S. K., and Lilley, A. E.: 1977, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 472.Google Scholar
  110. Lord Rayleigh: 1881, Phil. Mag. (5th series) 12, 81.Google Scholar
  111. Rauser, P. and Fechtig, H.: 1972, Space Res. 12, 391.Google Scholar
  112. Rauser, P. and Fechtig, H.: 1973, Space Res. 13, 1127.Google Scholar
  113. Reid, G. C.: 1975, J. Atmosph. Sci. 32, 523.Google Scholar
  114. Reid, G. C.: 1977, Planet. Space Sci. 25, 275.Google Scholar
  115. Rossler, F.: 1972, Space Res. 12, 423.Google Scholar
  116. Rozenberg, G. V.: 1963, Sumerki, Nauka (Moscow); English translation by R. B. Rodman: 1966, Twilight: A Study in Atmospheric Optics, Plenum (New York).Google Scholar
  117. Schroeder, W. 1968, Gerlands. Beitr. Geophysik 77, 191.Google Scholar
  118. Schroeder, W. 1969a, Gerlands. Beitr. Geophysik 79, 229.Google Scholar
  119. Schroeder, W. 1969b, Meteorol. Rdsch. 22, 18.Google Scholar
  120. Schroeder, W. 1970a, Gerlands Beitr. Geophysik 79, 223.Google Scholar
  121. Schroeder, W. 1970b, Gerlands Beitr. Geophysik 79, 489.Google Scholar
  122. Schroeder, W. 1971, Gerlands Beitr. Geophysik 80, 65.Google Scholar
  123. Schroeder, W. 1973, Wetter u. Leben 25, 166.Google Scholar
  124. Schroeder, W. 1974, Meteorol. Rdsch. 27, 61.Google Scholar
  125. Scott, A. F. D: 1974, Nature 247, 269.Google Scholar
  126. Seshamani, R. 1977, Space Res. 17, 141.Google Scholar
  127. Shefov, N. N.: 1967a, Proc. Int. Symp. Noct. Clouds (Tallinn, 1966), pp. 187–189, (Moscow).Google Scholar
  128. Shefov, N. N.: 1967b, Pol. Siyan. Svech. Noch. Neba 13, 37.Google Scholar
  129. Shurcliff, W. A.: 1962, Polarized Light — Production and Use, Oxford University Press (London).Google Scholar
  130. Simmons, D. A. R.: 1982, in preparation for publication.Google Scholar
  131. Smith, W. S., Theon, J. S., Swartz, P. C., Katchen, L. B., and Horvath, J. J.: 1967, Temperature, Pressure.Density and Wind Measurements in the Upper Stratosphere and Mesosphere, NASA TR R-263 (Washington).Google Scholar
  132. Smyth, C. P.: 1886, Nature 34, 311.Google Scholar
  133. Soberman, R. K., Chrest, S. A., Manning, J. J., Rey, L., Ryan, T. G., Skrivanek, R. A., and Wilhelm, N.: 1964, Tellus 16, 89.Google Scholar
  134. Stormer, C.: 1933, Avhand, Del Norske Vid.-Akad. Oslo I. Mat.-Naturv. Kl. No. 2.Google Scholar
  135. Stormer, C.: 1935a, Nature 135, 103.Google Scholar
  136. Stormer, C.: 1935b, Astrophys. Norvegica 1, 87.Google Scholar
  137. Tarasova, T. M.: 1962, Trudy Sovech. Sereb. Oblakam, III, pp. 55–67, (Tallin).Google Scholar
  138. Taylor, M. J.: 1981, J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 14, 865.Google Scholar
  139. Theon, J. S., Smith, W. S., and McGovern, W. E.: 1969, Science 164, 715.Google Scholar
  140. Tozer, W. F. and Beeson, D. E.: 1974, J. Geophys. Res. 79, 5607.Google Scholar
  141. Vasilyev, O. B.: 1962, Trudy Sovech. Sereb. Oblakam, III, pp. 14–28 (Tallin).Google Scholar
  142. Veselov, D. P., Popov, O. I., Semenova, V. I., Seleznev, G. I., and Fedorova, Ye. O.: 1976, Atmosf. Okean. Fiz. 12, 1097.Google Scholar
  143. Vestine, E. H.: 1934a, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Canada 28, 249.Google Scholar
  144. Vestine, E. H.: 1934b, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Canada 28, 303.Google Scholar
  145. Wait, J. R.: 1955, Canad. J. Phys. 33, 189.Google Scholar
  146. Willmann, Ch. I.: 1962, Trudy Sovech. Sereb. Oblakam, III, pp. 29–54 (Tallin).Google Scholar
  147. Willmann, Ch. I., Klimuk, P. I., Koksharov, P. I., Sevastyanov, V. I., Sergeyevich, V. N., and Eerme, K. A.: 1977, Opt. Issled. Izpuch. Atmosf. Pol. Siyanii i Serebr. Oblakov Borta Orbit. Nauch. Stach. ‘Salyut-4’, pp.53–66 (Tartu).Google Scholar
  148. Willmann, Ch. I., Grechko, G. M., Romanenko, Yu. V., Speransky, K. E., and Fedynsky, A. V.: 1981, Atmosf.-Optich. Yablen. Nabluch. Orbit. Nauch. Stanchii ‘Salyut’, pp. 46–51 (Tartu).Google Scholar
  149. Witt, G.: 1960a, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 925.Google Scholar
  150. Witt, G.: 1960b, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 2199.Google Scholar
  151. Witt, G.: 1962, Tellus 14, 1.Google Scholar
  152. Witt, G.: 1968, Tellus 20, 98.Google Scholar
  153. Witt, G.: 1969, Space Res. 9, 157.Google Scholar
  154. Witt, G., Wilhelm, R, Stegman, J., Williams, A. P., Holback, B., Llewellyn, E., and Pedersen, A.: 1971, Rep. AP-7, Inst. Met., Stockholm University.Google Scholar
  155. Witt, G., Dye, J. E., and Wilhelm, N.: 1976, J. Atmosph. Terr. Phys. 38, 223.Google Scholar

The references below contain lists of observations for particular areas and are given to allow the reader to recall the papers from a library with efficiency: Western Europe:

  1. Paton, J. 1965, Met. Mag. 94, 180.Google Scholar
  2. Paton, J. 1966, Met. Mag. 95, 174.Google Scholar
  3. Paton, J. 1967, Met. Mag. 96, 187.Google Scholar
  4. Paton, J. 1968, Met. Mag. 97, 174.Google Scholar
  5. Paton, J. 1969, Met. Mag. 98, 219.Google Scholar
  6. Paton, J. 1970, Met. Mag. 99, 184.Google Scholar
  7. Paton, J. 1971, Met. Mag. 100, 179.Google Scholar
  8. Paton, J. 1972, Met. Mag. 101, 182.Google Scholar
  9. Paton, J. 1973, Met. Mag. 102, 171.Google Scholar
  10. McIntosh, D. H. and Hallissey, M.: 1974, Met. Mag. 103, 157.Google Scholar
  11. McIntosh, D. H. and Hallissey, M.: 1975, Met. Mag. 104, 180.Google Scholar
  12. McIntosh, D. H. and Hallissey, M.: 1976, Met. Mag. 105, 187.Google Scholar
  13. McIntosh, D. H. and Hallissey, M.: 1977, Met. Mag. 106, 181.Google Scholar
  14. McIntosh, D. H. and Hallissey, M.: 1978, Met. Mag. 107, 182.Google Scholar
  15. McIntosh, D. H. and Hallissey, M.: 1979, Met. Mag. 108, 185.Google Scholar
  16. McIntosh, D. H. and Hallissey, M.: 1980, Met. Mag. 109, 182.Google Scholar
  17. McIntosh, D. H. and Hallissey, M.: 1981, Met. Mag. 110, 109.Google Scholar


  1. Kosibowa, S. and Pyka, J. L.: 1973, Acta Geophys. Pol. 21, 169.Google Scholar
  2. Kosibowa, S., Speil, J., and Pyka, J. L.: 1975, Acta Geophys. Pol. 23, 91.Google Scholar
  3. Kosibowa, S., Speil, J., and Pyka, J. L.: 1976, Acta Geophys. Pol. 24, 181.Google Scholar
  4. Kosibowa, S., Pyka, J. L., and Speil, J.: 1978, Acta Geophys. Pol. 26, 63.Google Scholar
  5. Kosibowa, S. and Pyka, J. L.: 1980, Acta Geophys. Pol. 28, 77.Google Scholar

Catalogue of observations, worldwide, 1885–1970:

  1. Fast, N. N.: 1972, Katalog poyarlenii serebristikh oblakov po mirovim dannim, Tomskova Universiteta (Tomsk).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Co 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Gadsden
    • 1
  1. 1.Natural Philosophy DepartmentAberdeen UniversityAberdeenScotland

Personalised recommendations