Trees

, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp 129–142 | Cite as

Ecophysiology of mangroves

  • Marilyn C. Ball
Review Article

Conclusion

Mangrove forests are of major ecological and commercial importance, yet the future of these resources is threatened by pollution, development and over-exploitation. There is an urgent need to develop sound management practices based on a functional understanding of the physical and biological processes underlying mangrove ecosystem dynamics. Such biological processes include dispersal (Rabinowitz 1978), herbivory (Smith 1987) and the physiological bases of species interactions and responses to environmental factors. Understanding these processes is essential for the development of more comprehensive and predictive modelling of mangrove ecosystem dynamics than has previously been possible.

Key words

Mangroves Salt tolerance Water-logging tolerance Community structure 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andrews TJ, Muller GJ (1985) Photosynthetic gas exchange of the mangrove, Rhizophora stylosa Griff., in its natural environment. Oecologia 65: 449–455Google Scholar
  2. Andrews TJ, Clough BF, Muller GJ (1984) Photosynthetic gas exchange and carbon isotope ratios of some mangroves in North Queensland. In: Teas HJ (ed) Physiology and management of mangroves. Tasks for vegetation science, vol. 9. Junk, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  3. Atkinson MR, Findlay GP, Hope AB, Pitman MG, Saddler HDW, West KR (1967) Salt regulation in the mangroves Rhizophora mucronata Lam. and Aegialitis annulata R. Br Aust J Biol Sci 20: 589–599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Attiwill PM, Clough BF (1980) Carbon dioxide and water vapour exchange in the white mangrove. Photosynthetica 14: 40–47Google Scholar
  5. Ball MC (1981) Physiology of photosynthesis in two mangrove species: responses to salinity and other environmental factors. PhD thesis, Australian National University, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  6. Ball MC (1986) Photosynthesis in mangroves. Wetlands (Australia) 6: 12–22Google Scholar
  7. Ball MC (1988) Salinity tolerance in the mangroves, Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina. I. Water use in relation to growth, carbon partitioning and salt balance. Aust J Plant Physiol 15: 447–464Google Scholar
  8. Ball MC, Anderson JM (1986) Sensitivity of photosystem II to NaCl in relation to salinity tolerance. Comparative studies with thylakoids of the salt-tolerant mangrove, Avicennia marina, and the salt-sensitive pea, Pisum sativum. Aust J Plant Physiol 13: 689–698Google Scholar
  9. Ball MC, Critchley C (1982) Photosynthetic responses to irradiance by the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina, grown under different light regimes. Plant Physiol 74: 7–11Google Scholar
  10. Ball MC, Farquhar GD (1984a) Photosynthetic and stomatal responses of the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina, to transient salinity conditions. Plant Physiol 74: 7–11Google Scholar
  11. Ball MC, Farquhar GD (1984b) Photosynthetic and stomatal responses of two mangrove species, Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina, to long term salinity and humidity conditions. Plant Physiol 74: 1–6Google Scholar
  12. Ball MC, Pidsley SM (1988) Seedling establishment of tropical mangrove species in relation to salinity. In: Larson H, Hanley R, Michie M (eds) Darwin Harbour: proceedings of a Workshop on Research and Management in Darwin Harbour. Australian National University Press, Canberra, pp 123–134Google Scholar
  13. Ball MC, Chow WS, Anderson JM (1987) Salinity-induced potassium deficiency causes loss of functional photosystem II in leaves of the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina, through depletion of the atrazine-binding polypeptide. Aust J Plant Physiol 14: 351–361Google Scholar
  14. Ball MC, Cowan IR, Farquhar GD (1988) Maintenance of leaf temperature and the optimisation of carbon gain in relation to water loss in a tropical mangrove forest. Aust J Plant Physiol 15: 263–276Google Scholar
  15. Barber J (1976) Ionic regulation in intact chloroplasts and its effect on primary photosynthetic processes. In: Barber J (ed) The intact chloroplast. Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam New York, 89–134Google Scholar
  16. Bjorkman O, Demmig B (1987) Photon yield of O2 evolution and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics at 77 K among vascular plants of diverse origins. Planta 170: 489–504Google Scholar
  17. Boon PI, Allaway WG (1982) Assessment of leaf washing techniques for measuring salt secretion in Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. Aust J Plant Physiol 9: 725–734Google Scholar
  18. Boon PI, Allaway WG (1986) Rates and ionic specificity of salt secretion from excised leaves of the mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. Aquat Bot 26: 143–153Google Scholar
  19. Boto KG (1982) Nutrient and organic fluxes in mangroves. In: Clough BF (ed) Mangrove ecosystems in Australia. Australian National University Press, Canberra, pp 239–258Google Scholar
  20. Boto KG, Wellington JT (1983) Phosphorus and nitrogen nutritional status of a northern Australian mangrove forest. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 11: 63–69Google Scholar
  21. Boto KG, Wellington JT (1984) Soil characteristics and nutrient status in a northern Australian mangrove forest. Estuaries 7: 61–69Google Scholar
  22. Bowman HHM (1917) Ecology and physiology of the red mangrove. Proc Am Philos Soc 56: 589–672Google Scholar
  23. Burchett MD, Field CD, Pulkownik A (1984) Salinity, growth and root respiration in the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina. Physiol Plant 60: 113–118Google Scholar
  24. Camilleri JC, Ribi G (1983) Leaf thickness of mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) growing in different salinities. Biotropica 15: 139–141Google Scholar
  25. Cardale S, Field CD (1971) The structure of the salt gland of Aegiceras corniculatum. Planta 99: 183–191Google Scholar
  26. Chapman VJ (1944) The 1939 Cambridge University expedition to Jamaica. J Linnean Soc Bot 52: 407–533Google Scholar
  27. Clarke LD, Hannon NJ (1970) The mangrove swamp and salt marsh communities of the Sydney district III. Plant growth in relation to salinity and waterlogging. J Ecology 58: 351–369Google Scholar
  28. Clough BF (1984) Growth and salt balance of the mangroves, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. and Rhizophora stylosa Griff. in relation to salinity. Aust J Plant Physiol 11: 419–430Google Scholar
  29. Clough BF, Andrews TJ, Cowan IR (1982) Physiological processes in mangroves. In: Clough BF (ed) Mangrove ecosystems in Australia. Structure, function and management. Australian National University Press, Canberra, pp 193–210Google Scholar
  30. Connor DJ (1969) Growth of grey mangrove (Avicennia marina) in nutrient culture. Biotropica 1: 36–40Google Scholar
  31. Cowan IR (1982) Regulation of water use in relation to carbon gein in higher plants. In: Lange OL, Nobel PS, Osmond CB, Ziegler H (eds) Physiological plant ecology II. Water relations and carbon assimilation. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 589–614Google Scholar
  32. Cowan IR (1986) Economics of carbon fixation in higher plants. In: Givnish TJ (ed) On the economy of plant form and function. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 133–170Google Scholar
  33. Cowan IR, Farquhar GD (1977) Stomatal function in relation to leaf metabolism and environment. In: Jennings DH (ed) Integration of activity in the higher plant. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 471–505Google Scholar
  34. Curran M (1985) Gas movements in the roots of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. Aust J Plant Physiol 12: 97–108Google Scholar
  35. Downton WJS (1982) Growth and osmotic relations of the mangrove Avicennia marina, as influenced by salinity. Aust J Plant Physiol 9: 519–528Google Scholar
  36. Drennan P, Pammenter NW (1982) Physiology of salt secretion in the mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. New Phytol 91: 597–606Google Scholar
  37. Drew MC, Dikumwin E (1985) Sodium exclusion from the shoots by roots of Zea mays (cv. LG 11) and its breakdown with oxygen deficiency. J Exp Bot 36: 55–62Google Scholar
  38. Ehleringer J, Bjorkman O (1977) Quantum yields for CO2 uptake in C3 and C4 plants. Dependence on temperature, CO2 and O2 concentrations. Plant Physiol 59: 86–90Google Scholar
  39. Faraday CD, Thomson WW (1986) Structural aspects of the salt glands of the Plumbaginaceae. J Exp Bot 37: 461–470Google Scholar
  40. Farquhar GD (1979) Carbon assimilation in relation to transpiration and fluxes of ammonia. In: Marcelle R, Clijsters H, van Poucke M (eds) Photosynthesis and plant development. Junk, The Hague, pp 321–328Google Scholar
  41. Farquhar GD, Sharkey TD (1982) Stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 33: 317–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Farquhar GD, Ball MC, von Caemmerer S, Roksandic Z (1982) Effect of salinity and humidity on δ13C values of halophytes — evidence for diffusional isotope fractionation determined by the ratio of intercellular/atmospheric CO2 under different environmental conditions. Oecologia 52: 121–137Google Scholar
  43. Field CD (1984) Movement of ions and water into the xylem sap of tropical mangroves. In: Teas HJ (ed) Physiology and management of mangroves. Junk, The Hague, pp 49–52Google Scholar
  44. Flowers TJ, Yeo AR (1986) Ion relations of plants under drought and salinity. Aust J Plant Physiol 13: 75–91Google Scholar
  45. Flowers TJ, Hajibagheri MA, Clipson NJW (1986) Halo-phytes. Quart Rev Biol 61: 313–337Google Scholar
  46. Greenway H, Osmond CB (1972) Salt responses of enzymes from species differing in salt tolerance. Plant Physiol 49: 256–259Google Scholar
  47. Hanson AD, May AM, Grumet R, Bole J, Jamieson GC, Rodes D (1985) Betaine synthesis in chenopods: localization in chloroplasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 3678–3682Google Scholar
  48. Harvey HW (1966) The chemistry and fertility of seawater. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 36–54Google Scholar
  49. Harvey DMR, Hall JL, Flowers TJ, Kent B (1981) Quantitative ion localization within Suaeda maritima leaf mesophyll cells. Planta 151: 555–560Google Scholar
  50. Huber SC (1985) Role of potassium in photosynthesis and respiration. In: Munson RD (ed) Potassium in agriculture. Am Soc Agron, Madison, Wisconsin, pp 369–396Google Scholar
  51. Kaiser WH, Weber H, Sauer M (1983) Photosynthetic capacity, osmotic response, and solute content of leaves and chloroplasts from Spinacia oleracea under salt stress. Z Pflanzenphysiol 113: 15–27Google Scholar
  52. Komiyama A, Ogino K, Aksornkoae S, Sabhasri S (1987) Root biomass of a mangrove forest in southern Thailand. I. Estimation by the trench method and the zonal structure of root biomass. J Tropical Ecology 3: 97–108Google Scholar
  53. Kriedemann PE (1986) Stomatal and photosynthetic limitations to leaf growth. Aust J Plant Physiol 13: 15–32Google Scholar
  54. Kriedemann PE, Sands R (1984) Salt resistance and adaptation to root-zone hypoxia in sunflower. Aust J Plant Physiol 11: 287–301Google Scholar
  55. Leshem Y, Levison E (1972) Regulation mechanisms in the salt mangrove, Avicennia marina, growing in the Sinai littoral. Oecol Plant 7: 167–176Google Scholar
  56. Lessani H, Marchner H (1978) Relation between salt tolerance and long-distance transport of sodium and chloride in various crop species. Aust J Plant Physiol 5: 27–37Google Scholar
  57. Macnae W (1968) A general account of the fauna and flora of the mangrove swamps and forests in the Indo-Pacific region. Adv Mar Biol 6: 73–270Google Scholar
  58. McKee KL, Mendelssohn IA (1987) Root metabolism in the black mangrove (Avicennia germinans (L.) L): response to hypoxia. Environ Exp Bot 27: 147–156Google Scholar
  59. Moon GJ, Clough BF, Peterson CA, Allaway WG (1986) Apoplastic and symplastic pathways in Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. roots revealed by fluorescent tracer dyes. Aust J Plant Physiol 13: 637–648Google Scholar
  60. Moore RT, Miller PC, Albright D, Tieszen LL (1972) Comparative gas exchange characteristics of three mangrove species in winter. Photosynthetica 6: 387–393Google Scholar
  61. Moore RT, Miller PC, Ehleringer J, Lawrence W (1973) Seasonal trends in gas exchange characteristics of three mangrove species. Photosynthetica 7: 387–394Google Scholar
  62. Munns R, Fisher DB, Tonnet ML (1986) Na+ and Cl transport in the phloem from leaves of NaCl-treated barley. Aust J Plant Physiol 13: 757–766Google Scholar
  63. Naidoo G (1983) Effects of flooding on leaf water potential and stomatal resistance in Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) LAM. New Phytol 93: 369–376Google Scholar
  64. Naidoo G (1985) Effects of waterlogging and salinity on plant water relations and on the accumulation of solutes in three mangrove species. Aquat Bot 22: 133–143Google Scholar
  65. Naidoo G (1987) Effects of salinity and nitrogen on growth and plant water relations in the mangrove Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. New Phytol 107: 317–326Google Scholar
  66. Nickerson NH, Thibodeau FR (1985) Association between pore water sulfide concentrations and the distribution of mangroves. Biogeochemistry 1: 183–192Google Scholar
  67. Oertli JJ (1968) Extracellular salt accumulation: a possible mechanism of salt injury in plants. Agrochimica 12: 461–469Google Scholar
  68. Pitman MG (1977) Ion transport into the xylem. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 28: 71–88Google Scholar
  69. Popp M (1984a) Chemical composition of Australian mangroves. I. Inorganic ions and organic acids. Z Pflanzenphysiol 113: 395–409Google Scholar
  70. Popp M (1984b) Chemical composition of Australian mangroves. II. Low molecular weight carbohydrates. Z Pflanzenphysiol 113: 411–421Google Scholar
  71. Popp M, Larher F, Weigel P (1984) Chemical composition of Australian mangroves. III. Free amino acids, total methylated onium compounds and total nitrogen. Z Pflanzenphysiol 114: 15–25Google Scholar
  72. Rabinowitz D (1978) Early growth of mangrove seedlings in Panama, and an hypothesis concerning the relationship of dispersal and zonation. J Biogeogr 5: 113–133Google Scholar
  73. Robinson SP, Downton WJS (1984) Potassium, sodium and chloride content of isolated intact chloroplasts in relation to ionic compartmentation in leaves. Arch Biochem Biophys 228: 197–206Google Scholar
  74. Robinson SP, Downton WJS (1985) Potassium, sodium and chloride concentrations in leaves and isolated chloroplasts of the halophyte Suaeda australis R Br. Aust J Plant Physiol 12: 471–479Google Scholar
  75. Robinson SP, Downton WJS, Mulhouse JA (1983) Photosynthesis and ion content of leaves and isolated chloroplasts of salt-stressed spinach. Plant Physiol 72: 238–243Google Scholar
  76. Saenger P, Specht MM, Specht RL, Chapman VJ (1977) Mangal and coastal salt-marsh communities in Australasia. In: Chapman VJ (ed) Wet Coastal Ecosystems, Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York, pp 293–345Google Scholar
  77. Scholander PF (1968) How mangroves desalinate seawater. Physiol Plant 21: 251–261Google Scholar
  78. Scholander PF, Dam L van, Scholander SI (1955) Gas exchange in the roots of mangroves. Am J Bot 42: 92–98Google Scholar
  79. Scholander PF, Hammel HT, Hemmingsen EA, Garey W (1962) Salt balance in mangroves. Plant Physiol 37: 722–729Google Scholar
  80. Scholander PF, Hammel HT, Hemmingsen EA, Bradstreet ED (1964) Hydrostatic pressure and osmotic potential in leaves of mangroves and some other plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 52: 119–125Google Scholar
  81. Scholander PF, Bradstreet ED, Hammel HT, Hemmingsen EA (1966) Sap concentrations in halophytes and some other plants. Plant Physiol 41: 529–532Google Scholar
  82. Semeniuk V (1983) Mangrove distribution in northwestern Australia in relationship to regional and local freshwater seepage. Vegetatio 53: 11–31Google Scholar
  83. Semeniuk V, Wurm PAS (1987) The mangroves of the Dampier Archipelago, Western Australia. J R Soc Western Aust 69: 29–87Google Scholar
  84. Shimony C, Fahn A, Reinhold L (1973) Ultrastructure and ion gradients in the salt glands of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. New Phytol 72: 27–36Google Scholar
  85. Smith BN, Epstein S (1971) Two categories of 13C/12C ratios for higher plants. Plant Physiol 47: 380–384Google Scholar
  86. Smith TJ III (1987) Seed predation in relation to tree dominance and distribution in mangrove forests. Ecology 68: 266–273Google Scholar
  87. Sternberg L da SL, Swart PK (1987) Utilization of freshwater and ocean water by coastal plants of Southern Florida. Ecology 68: 1898–1905Google Scholar
  88. Thibodeau FR, Nickerson NH (1986) Differential oxidation of mangrove substrate by Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle. Am J Bot 73: 512–516Google Scholar
  89. Tomlinson PB (1986) The botany of mangroves. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 62–115Google Scholar
  90. Valiela I (1984) Marine ecological processes. Springer, New York Berlin Heidelberg, pp 312–344Google Scholar
  91. Waisel Y, Eshel A, Agami M (1986) Salt balance of leaves of the mangrove, Avicennia marina. Physiol Plant 67: 67–72Google Scholar
  92. Watson JC (1928) Mangrove forests of the Malayan peninsula. Mala For Rec 6: 1–275Google Scholar
  93. Yeo AR, Flowers TJ (1986) Ion transport in Suaeda maritima: its relation to growth and implications for the pathway of radial transport of ions and water across the root. J Exp Bot 37: 143–159Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marilyn C. Ball
    • 1
  1. 1.North Australia Research Unit and Department of Biogeography and GeomorphologyResearch School of Pacific Studies, Australian National UniversityCanberraAustralia

Personalised recommendations