Three unexpected cases of refracting superposition eyes in crustaceans
- 153 Downloads
There is a wide clear-zone, which allows for a superposition image to be formed.
Dark-adapted eyes display a large eye-glow, and the ommatidia are not optically isolated.
The crystalline cones have the shape typical for refracting superposition eyes, and they contain the required lens-cylinder gradient of refractive index.
Euphausiids and mysids were previously thought to be the only crustaceans with refracting superposition eyes, whereas the species investigated here were assumed to have reflecting superposition eyes (decapod shrimps) or apposition eyes (hermit crabs and syncarids). The present findings increase more than twofold the number of crustacean groups that are known to have developed refracting superposition optics. It also provides insight into the evolutionary mechanisms that may have led to the development of this type of imaging optics.
Key wordsCompound eye Optics Crustacea Evolution
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bursey CR (1975) The microanatomy of the compound eye of Munida irrasa (Decapoda: Galatheidae). Cell Tissue Res 160:505–514Google Scholar
- Exner S (1891) Die Physiologie der facettirten Augen von Krebsen und Insecten. English translation by Hardie R (1988) The physiology of the compound eyes of insects and crustaceans. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Kampa EM (1963) The structure of the eye of a galatheid crustacean, Pleuroncodes planipes. Crustaceana 6:69–80Google Scholar
- Land MF (1981) Optics and vision in invertebrates. In: Autrum H (ed) Vision in invertebrates (Handbook of sensory physiology, Vol VII/6B). Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 471–592Google Scholar
- Land MF (1984a) The resolving power of diurnal superposition eyes measured with an ophthalmoscope. J Comp Physiol A 154:515–533Google Scholar
- Land MF (1984b) Crustacea. In: Ali MA (ed) Photoreception and vision in invertebrates. Plenum, New York, pp 401–438Google Scholar
- Land MF, Burton FA (1979) The refractive index gradient in the crystalline cones of the eyes of an euphausiid crustacean. J Exp Biol 82:395–398Google Scholar
- Land MF, Burton FA, Meyer-Rochow VB (1979) The optical geometry of euphausiid eyes. J Comp Physiol 130:49–62Google Scholar
- Meyer-Rochow VB, Walsh S (1977) The eyes of mesopelagic crustaceans. I. Gennadas sp. (Panaeidae). Cell Tissue Res 184:87–101Google Scholar
- Nilsson D-E (1983) Evolutionary links between apposition and superposition optics in crustacean eyes. Nature 302:818–821Google Scholar
- Nilsson D-E (1988) A new type of imaging optics in compound eyes. Nature 332:76–78Google Scholar
- Nilsson D-E (1989) Optics and evolution of the compound eye. In: Stavenga DG, Hardie R (eds) Facets of vision. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 30–73Google Scholar
- Nilsson D-E, Odselius R (1981) A new mechanism for light-dark adaptation in the Artemia compound eye (Anostraca, Crustacea). J Comp Physiol 143:389–399Google Scholar
- Nilsson D-E, Andersson M, Hallberg E, McIntyre P (1983) A micro-interferometric method for analysis of rotation-symmetric refractive-index gradients in intact objects. J Microsc 132:21–29Google Scholar
- Nilsson D-E, Hallberg E, Elofsson R (1986) The ontogenetic development of refracting superposition eyes in crustaceans: Transformation of optical design. Tissue Cell 18:509–519Google Scholar
- Nilsson D-E, Land MF, Howard J (1988) Optics of the butterfly eye. J Comp Physiol A 162:341–366Google Scholar
- Vogt K (1975) Zur Optik des Flußkrebsauges. Z Naturforsch 30:691Google Scholar