Advertisement

Mineralium Deposita

, Volume 30, Issue 2, pp 124–134 | Cite as

The carbonates of the Transvaal and Griqualand West sequences of the Kaapvaal craton, with special reference to the Lime Acres limestone deposit

  • W. Altermann
  • J. McD. Wotherspoon
Article

Abstract

The Campbell Group carbonates were deposited in a basin transgressing from southwest to the east and to northeast. At the southwestern margin of the Kaapvaal craton, in Griqualand West, mainly tidal flat carbonates and shallow marine deposits are found to be followed by subtidal carbonates marking the slow transgression. North of the Griquatown Fault, where the center of the Griqualand West sub-basin developed, continuous subsidence matched by stromatolitic carbonate growth, led to accumulation of the thickest carbonate pile (> 2000 m). There, the largest limestone deposits of South Africa are located. The deposit at Lime Acres and mining operations of the PPC Lime Ltd. are described and discussed in respect to diagenetic processes that permitted limestone preservation.

Keywords

Group Carbonate Marine Deposit Diagenetic Process Shallow Marine Kaapvaal Craton 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Altermann, W. Sedimentology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks in the upper Archean Campbell Group, western Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa and their paleogeographic implications. Precambrian Res. (submitted for publication)Google Scholar
  2. Altermann, W., Hälbich, I.W. (1990) Thrusting, folding and stratigraphy of the Ghaap Group along the southwestern margin of the Kaapvaal Craton. S. Afr. J. Geol. 93:553–566Google Scholar
  3. Altermann, W., Hälbich, I.W. (1991a) Final report on the project “Tectonic, metamorphic, stratigraphic and sedimentary history of the lower part of the Griqualand West Sequence up to the base of the Ongeluk Lava, between Niekerkshoop, Boegoeberg and the Doringberge”. Transvaal Subprogramme of the National Geoscience Programme. Unpublished Report to the Foundation of Research Development (FRD), CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa, 34ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Altermann, W., Hälbich, I.W. (1991b) Structural history of the south western corner of the Kaapvaal Craton and the adjacent Namaqua Realm: new observations and reappraisal. Precambrian Res. 52:133–166Google Scholar
  5. Altermann, W., Herbig, H.G. (1991) Tidal flats deposits of the Lower Proterozoic Campbell Group along the southwestern margin of the Kaapvaal Craton, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. J. Afr. Earth. Sci. 13:415–435Google Scholar
  6. Altermann, W., Schopf, J.W. Microfossils from the Neoarchean Campbell Group, Griqualand West Sequence of the Transvaal Supergroup and their paleoenvironmental and evolutionary implications. Precambrian Res. (submitted for publication)Google Scholar
  7. Armstrong, R.A., Compston, W., Retief, E.A., Williams, I.S., Welke, H.J. (1991) Zircon ion microprobe studies bearing on the age and evolution of the Witwatersrand Triad. Precambrian Res. 53:243–266Google Scholar
  8. Badenhorst, J.J. (1988) Limestone and lime. In: Goldberg, I. (ed.) South Africa's Mineral Industry 1987. Dept. Mineral and Energy Affairs, Minerals Bureau of South Africa, Johannesburg, pp. 161–163Google Scholar
  9. Barton, E.S., Altermann, W., Williams, I.S., Smith, C.B. (1994) U-Pb zircon age for a tuff in the Campbell Group, Griqualand West Sequence, South Africa: implications for Early Proterozoic rock accumulation rates. Geology. 22:343–346Google Scholar
  10. Beukes, N.J. (1978) Die karbonaatgesteentes en ysterformasies van die Ghaap-Groep van die Transvaal Supergroep in Noord Kaapland. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg, 580ppGoogle Scholar
  11. Beukes, N.J. (1980) Stratigrafie en litofasies van die Campbellrand-Subgroep van die Proterofitiese Ghaap-Groep, Noord-Kaapland Trans. Geol. Soc. S. Afr. 83:141–170Google Scholar
  12. Beukes, N.J. (1983a) Paleoenvironmental setting of iron formations in the depositional basin of the Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa. In: Trendall A.F., Morris, R.C. (eds.) Iron-formation: facts and problems. Developments in Precambrian geology, 6. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 131–210Google Scholar
  13. Beukes, N.J. (1983b) Ooids and oolites of the Proterophytic Boomplaas Formation, Transvaal Supergroup, Griqualand West, South Africa. In: Peryt, T.M. (ed.) Coated grains. Springer, Heidelberg, Berlin New York, pp. 199–214Google Scholar
  14. Beukes, N.J. (1986) The Transvaal Sequence in Griqualand West. In: Anhaeusser, C.R., Maske, S. (eds.) Mineral deposits of Southern Africa. Geol Soc. S. Afr., Johannesburg, pp. 819–828Google Scholar
  15. Beukes, N.J. (1987) Facies relations, depositional environments and diagenesis in a major Early Proterozoic stromatolitic carbonate platform to basinal sequence, Campbellrand Subgroup, Transvaal Supergroup, Southern Africa. Sed. Geol. 54:1–46Google Scholar
  16. Button, A. (1973) The stratigraphic history of the Malmani Dolomite in the eastern and northeastern Transvaal. Trans. Geol. Soc. S. Afr. 76:229–247Google Scholar
  17. Button, A. (1986) The Transvaal sub-basin of the Transvaal sequence. In: Anhaeusser, C.R., Maske, S. (eds.) Mineral deposits of Southern Africa. Geol. Soc. S. Afr., Johannesburg, pp. 811–817Google Scholar
  18. Clendenin, C.W. (1989) Tectonic influence on the evolution of the Early Proterozoic Transvaal see. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University Witwatersrand, 376ppGoogle Scholar
  19. Clendenin, C.W., Charlesworth, E.G., Maske, S. (1988) An early Proterozoic three-stage rift system, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa. Tectonophysics 145:73–78Google Scholar
  20. Cornell, D.H., Schütte, S.S. (1995) A volcanic-exhalative origin for the world's largest (Kalahari) Manganese Field. Mineral. Deposita 30:146–151Google Scholar
  21. Crockett, R.N. (1972) The Transvaal System in Botswana: its geotectonic and depositional environment and special problems. Trans. Geol. Soc. S. Afr. 75:275–292Google Scholar
  22. Eriksson, K.A., McCarthy, T.S., Truswell, J.F. (1975) Limestone formation and dolomitisation in a lower Proterozoic succession from South Africa. J. Sed. Petrol., 45:604–614Google Scholar
  23. Eriksson, K.A., Truswell, J.F. (1974a) Tidal flat associations from the lower Proterozoic carbonate sequence in South Africa. Sedimentology 21:293–309Google Scholar
  24. Eriksson, K.A., Truswell, J.F. (1974b) Stratotypes from the Malmani Subgroup North-West of Johannesburg, South Africa. Trans. Geol. Soc. S. Afr. 77:211–222Google Scholar
  25. Eriksson, P.G., Hattingh, P.J., Altermann, W. (1995) An overview of the geology of the Transvaal Sequence and Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Mineral. Deposita 30:98–111Google Scholar
  26. Grobbelaar, W.S., Burger, M.A., Pretorius, A.I., Marais, W., Niekerk, I.J.M.V., (1995) Stratigraphic and structural setting of the Griqualand West and the Olifantshoek Sequences at Black Rock, Beeshoek and Rooinekke Mines, Griqualand West, South Africa. Mineral. Deposita 30:152–161Google Scholar
  27. Hälbich, I.W., Lamprecht, D.F., Altermann, W., Horstmann, U.E. (1992) A carbonate-banded iron formation transition in the early Proterozoikum of South Africa. J. Afr. Earth Sci. 15:217–236Google Scholar
  28. Jahn, B.-M., Bertrand-Sarfati, J., Morin, N., Mace, J. (1990) Direct dating of stromatolitic carbonate from the Schmidtsdrif Formation (Transvaal Dolomite), South Africa, with implications on the age of the Ventersdorp Supergroup. Geology 18:1211–1214Google Scholar
  29. Klein, C., Beukes, N.J., Schopf, J.W. (1987) Filamentous microfossils in the early Proterozoic Transvaal Supergroup: their morphology, significance, and paleoenvironmental setting. Precambrian Res. 36:81–94Google Scholar
  30. Klein, C., Beukes, N.J. (1989) Geochemistry and sedimentology of a facies transition from limestone to iron-formation deposition in the early Proterozoic Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa. Econ. Geol. 84:1733–1774Google Scholar
  31. Lanier, W.P. (1986) Approximate growth rates of Early Proterozoic microstromatolites as deduced by biomass productivity. Palaios 1:525–542Google Scholar
  32. Martini, J.E.J. (1987) Limestone and dolomite resources of the Republics of South Africa, Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei, and Venda. Handbook Geol. Surv. S. Afr. 9: 111ppGoogle Scholar
  33. Martini, J.E.J., Eriksson, P.G., Snyman, C.G. (1995) The Early Proterozoic Mississippi Valley-type Pb-Zn-F deposits of the Campbellrand and Malmani Subgroups, South Africa — a review. Mineral. Deposita 30:135–145Google Scholar
  34. Page D.C., Du Plessis, P.G. (1986) Chert-free metallurgical grade dolomite in the southern Transvaal: the Moiplaas and Glen Douglas mines. In: Anhaeusser, C.R., Maske, S. (eds.) Mineral deposits of Southern Africa. Geol. Soc. S. Afr., Johannesburg, pp. 829–835Google Scholar
  35. Plehwe-Leisen, E.v., Klemm, D.D. (1995) Geology and ore genesis of the Postmasburg Manganese-Field, South Africa. Mineral. Deposita 30 (in press)Google Scholar
  36. South African Committee for Stratigraphy (SACS) (1980) Stratigraphy of South Africa, part 1, In: Kent, L.E. (ed.) Litho-stratigraphy of the Republic of South Africa, South West Africa/Namibia, and the Republics of Bophuthaswana, Transkei and Venda. Handbook Geol. Surv. S. Afr. 8: 690ppGoogle Scholar
  37. Simonson, B.M., Schubel, K.A., Hassler, S.W. (1993) Carbonate sedimentology of the early Precambrian Hamersley Group of Western Australia. Precambrian Res., 60:287–335Google Scholar
  38. Truswell, J.F., Eriksson, K.A. (1972) The morphology of stromatolites from the Malmani Dolomite north-west of Johannesburg, South Africa. Trans. Geol. Soc. S. Afr. 75:99–110Google Scholar
  39. Truswell, J.F. Eriksson, K.A. (1973) Stromatolitic associations and their palaeoenvironmental significance: a re-appraisal of a lower Proterozoic locality from the northern Cape Province, South Africa. Sediment. Geol. 10:1–23Google Scholar
  40. Walraven, F., Beukes, N.J., Retief, E.A. 2.64 Ga zircons from the Vryburg Formation, Griqualand West: implications for the age of the base of the Transvaal Supergroup and accumulation rate of carbonate — iron formulation succession. Precambrian Res. (in press)Google Scholar
  41. Walraven, F., Martini, J. Zircon Pb-evaporation age determinations of the Oaktree Formation, Chuniespoort Group, Transvaal Sequence implications for a Transvaal-Griqualand West correlation. S. Afr. J. Geol. 97 (in press)Google Scholar
  42. Visser, D.J.L. (ed.) (1989) Explanation of the 1.1 000 000 Geological Map, 4th edn. 1984: the Geology of the Republics of South Africa, Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda and Ciskei and the Kingdoms of Lesotho and Swaziland. Geol. Surv. S. Afr., Pretoria, 491ppGoogle Scholar
  43. Visser, J.N.J., Grobler, N.J. (1972) The transition beds of the Dolomite Series in the Northern Cape Province. Trans. Geol. Soc. S. Afr. 75:265–274Google Scholar
  44. Young, R.B. (1932) The occurrence of stromatolitic or algal limestones in the Campbell Rand Series, Griqualand West. Trans. Geol. Soc. S. Afr. 35:29–36Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Altermann
    • 1
  • J. McD. Wotherspoon
    • 2
  1. 1.IAAG, Ludwig-Maximilians-UniversitätMünchenGermany
  2. 2.PPC Lime LimitedLime AcresSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations