The authors report on a group of 114 patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones who were treated by laparoscopic surgery. Management through the cystic duct was considered the first option. Choledochotomy was used for those patients in which the cystic approach was not possible or was unsuccessful. Transcystic lithotripsy was considered for patients with CBD stones in disproportion with the size of the cystic duct. Laparoscopic antegrade sphincterotomy was indicated as a drainage procedure. The transcystic approach was used in 89.5% of the patients; choledochotomy was used in 6.2%; and both ways were used in 4.3%. Different procedures were used, including mechanical and electrohydraulic lithotripsy, choledochotomy with T-tube or endoprostheses drainage, laparoscopic sphincterotomy, end-to-end common bile duct anastomosis, and choledochoduodenum anastomosis. One of the patients was in the 21st week of pregnancy. The laparoscopic approach to choledocholithiasis was successfully performed in 94.8% of the patients. Mean hospital stay was 1.7 days. There was a 6.2% incidence of complications and the mortality rate was 0.9%. In 84.3% of the patients, the transcystic approach was used successfully, with a complication rate of 4.9% and a mean hospital stay of 1.6 days. Three patients were converted to open surgery early in this series. Thus far, one patient has presented residual CBD stones. The results obtained suggest that laparoscopic common bile duct exploration is a technically feasible procedure, with low complication and mortality rates, although it requires adequate selection of patients and a variety of techniques and types of equipment.
Common bile duct stones Laparoscopic choledocholithotomy Electrohydraulic lithotripsy Laparoscopic sphincterotomy Laparoscopic choledochoduodeno anastomosis Laparoscopic end-to-end CBD anastomosis