Anatomy and Embryology

, Volume 192, Issue 2, pp 171–179 | Cite as

Lymphoid tissues of the ileum in young horses: distribution, structure, and epithelium

  • Stewart Lowden
  • Trevor Heath
Original Article


Lymphoid tissues in the ileum of young horses form raised plaques that are macroscopically visible from the mucosal surface. These are termed “ileal lymphoid patches”. These patches are variable in size, shape and position within the ileal wall, occasionally lying along the site of mesenteric attachment. Within lymphoid patches, follicles exist in three different morphological forms: follicle/dome structures, proprial follicles, and lymphoglandular complexes (LGCs). In follicle/dome structures, the majority of the follicle lies in the submucosa and merges with a dome in the lamina propria through a gap in the muscularis mucosae. In proprial follicles, the majority, or all, of the follicle is found in the lamina propria, and in LGCs, the follicles lie in the submucosa and communicate with the intestinal lumen via a central invagination of epithelium that extends vertically through a gap in the muscularis mucosae. Follicle-associated epithelium covers the follicle/dome structures and proprial follicles. It consists of enterocytes, cells morphologically resembling M cells, intraepithelial lymphocytes, goblet cells, and amine-precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) cells. The epithelium of LGCs is mainly populated by immature enterocytes, intraepithelial lymphocytes and goblet cells. Cells with coarse, long microvilli are also present. Information regarding the presence of LGCs in the small intestine is scant, but LGCs have been well described in the large intestine of many species. Further investigation will be required to determine if factors exist that are common to both the ileum of the horse and the large intestine of other species to influence the development of LGCs at these specific sites.

Key words

Lymphoid tissue Epithelium M cells Horse Ileum 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abe K, Ito T (1978) Qualitative and quantitative morphologic study of Peyer's patches of the mouse after neonatal thymectomy and hydrocortisone injection. Am J Anat 151:227–238Google Scholar
  2. Aleksandersen M, Nicander L, Landsverk T (1991) Ontogeny, distribution and structure of aggregated lymphoid follicles in the large intestine of sheep. Dev Comp Immunol 15:413–422Google Scholar
  3. Atkins AM, Schofield GC (1972) Lymphoglandular complexes in the large intestine of the dog. J Anat 113:169–178Google Scholar
  4. Bickley HC, Townsend FM (1984) Preserving biological material by plastination. Curator 27:65–73Google Scholar
  5. Boyes R (1992) Plastination techniques in preserving museum material. International Conference on the Role of University Museums. The Material Culture Unit, James Cook University, Townsville, July 1992Google Scholar
  6. Bye WA, Allan CH, Madara JL, Trier JS (1983) Mature and immature M cells-morphology and distribution (abstract). Gastroenterology 84:1118Google Scholar
  7. Bye WA, Allan CH, Trier JS (1984) Structure, distribution and origin of M cells in Peyer's patches of mouse ileum. Gastroenterology 86:789–801Google Scholar
  8. Caligaris-Cappio F (1992) Germinal center. In: Roitt IM, Delves PJ (eds) Encyclopedia of immunology, vol 2. Academic Press, London, pp 613–615Google Scholar
  9. Chu RM, Liu CH (1984) Morphological and functional comparisons of Peyer's patches in different parts of the swine small intestine. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 6:391–403Google Scholar
  10. Chu RM, Glock RD, Ross RF, Cox DF (1979) Lymphoid tissues of the small intestine of swine from birth to one month of age. Am J Vet Res 40:1713–1719Google Scholar
  11. Hagens G von (1979–1984) Technical leaflets on plastination. Anatomisches Institut I, University of Heidelberg, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  12. Hebel R (1960) Untersuchungen über das Vorkommen von lymphatischen Darmkrypten in der Tunica submucosa des Darmes von Schwein, Rind, Schaf, Hund und Katze. Anat Anz 109:7–21Google Scholar
  13. HogenEsch H, Felsburg PJ (1990) Ultrastructure and alkaline phosphatase activity of the dome epithelium of canine Peyer's patches. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 24:177–186Google Scholar
  14. HogenEsch H, Housman JM, Felsburg PJ (1987) Canine Peyer's patches: macroscopic, light microscope, scanning electron microscope and immunohistochemical investigations. Adv Exp Med Biol 216:249–256Google Scholar
  15. Kagnoff MF (1987) Immunology of the digestive system. In: Johnson LR, Christensen J, Jackson MJ, Jacobson ED, Walsh JH (eds) Physiology of the gastrointestinal tract, 2nd edn, vol 2. Raven Press, New York, pp 1699–1728Google Scholar
  16. Keljo DJ, Hamilton JR (1983) Quantitative determination of macromolecular transport rate across intestinal Peyer's patches. Am J Physiol 244:G637-G644Google Scholar
  17. Kihara T, Shimazui T, Kozuka K, Fujimura Y (1991) Structure and function of M cells with special reference to lymphocyte migration. In: Tsuchiya M, Nagura H, Hibi T, Moro I (eds) Frontiers of mucosal immunology, 1st edn, vol 1. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 479–482Google Scholar
  18. Klein J (1990) Immunology, 1st edn. Blackwell Scientific, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  19. Krammer H-J, Kuhnel W (1993) Topography of the enteric nervous system in Peyer's patches of the porcine small intestine. Cell Tissue Res 272:267–272Google Scholar
  20. Landsverk T (1987) The follicle-associated epithelium of the ileal Peyer's patch in ruminants is distinguished by its shedding of 50 nm particles. Immunol Cell Biol 65:251–261Google Scholar
  21. Landsverk T, Halleraker M, Aleksandersen M, McClure S, Hein W, Nicander L (1991) The intestinal habitat for organized lymphoid tissues in ruminants; comparative aspects of structure, function and development. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 28:1–16Google Scholar
  22. Liebler EM, Pohlenz JF, Cheville NF (1988a) Gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the large intestine of calves. II. Electron microscopy. Vet Pathol 25:509–515Google Scholar
  23. Liebler EM, Pohlenz JF, Woode GN (1988b) Gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the large intestine of calves. I. Distribution and histology. Vet Pathol 25:503–508Google Scholar
  24. Liebler EM, Paar M, Pohlenz JF (1991) M cells in the rectum of calves. Res Vet Sci 51:107–114Google Scholar
  25. Low FN, McClugage SG (1984) Microdissection by ultrasonication: scanning electron microscopy of the epithelial basal lamina of the alimentary canal in the rat. Am J Anat 169:137–147Google Scholar
  26. Lowden S, Heath T (1994) Ileal Peyer's patches in pigs: intercellular and lymphatic pathways. Anat Rec 239:297–305Google Scholar
  27. McClugage SG, Low FN (1984) Microdissection by ultrasonication: porosity of the intestinal epithelial basal lamina. Am J Anat 171:207–216Google Scholar
  28. McClugage SG, Low FN, Zimny ML (1986) Porosity of the basement membrane overlying Peyer's patches in rats and monkeys. Gastroenterology 91:1128–1133Google Scholar
  29. Morfitt DC, Pohlenz JFL (1989) Porcine colonic lymphoglandular complex: distribution, structure and epithelium. Am J Anat 184:41–51Google Scholar
  30. Neutra MR, Phillips TL, Mayer EL, Fishkind DJ (1987) Transport of membrane-bound macromolecules by M cells in follicle-associated epithelium of rabbit Peyer's patch. Cell Tissue Res 247:537–546Google Scholar
  31. Nickiin S (1987) Intestinal uptake of antigen — Immunological consequences. In: Miller K, Nickiin S (eds) Immunology of the gastrointestinal tract, 1st edn, vol 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 87–109Google Scholar
  32. O'Leary AD, Sweeney EC (1986) Lymphoglandular complexes of the colon: structure and distribution. Histopathology 10:267–283Google Scholar
  33. Owen RL (1977) Sequential uptake of horseradish peroxidase by lymphoid follicle epithelium of Peyer's patches in the normal unobstructed mouse intestine: an ultrastructural study. Gastroenterology 72:440–451Google Scholar
  34. Owen RL, Bhalla DK (1983) Lympho-epithelial organs and lymph nodes. In: Hodges GM, Carr KE (eds) Biomedical research applications of scanning electron microscopy, 1st edn, vol 3. Academic Press, London, pp 79–170Google Scholar
  35. Owen RL, Nemanic P (1978) Antigen processing structures of the mammalian intestinal tract; an SEM study of the lymphoepithelial organs. Scan Electron Microsc 2:367–375Google Scholar
  36. Owen RL, Piazza AJ, Ermak TH (1991) Ultrastructural and cytoarchitectural features of lymphoreticular organs in the colon and rectum of adult BALB/c mice Am J Anat 190:10–18Google Scholar
  37. Paar M, Liebler EM, Pohlenz JF (1992) Uptake of ferritin by follicle-associated epithelium in the colon of calves. Vet Pathol 29:120–128Google Scholar
  38. Parsons KR, Bland AP, Hall GA (1991) Follicle associated epithelium of the gut associated lymphoid tissue of cattle. Vet Pathol 28:22–29Google Scholar
  39. Platt H (1986) Chronic inflammatory and lymphoproliferative lesions of the equine small intestine. J Comp Path 96:671–684Google Scholar
  40. Platt H (1987) Alimentary lymphomas in the horse. J Comp Pathol 97:1–10Google Scholar
  41. Reynolds J, Pabst R, Bordman G (1985) Evidence for the existence of two distinct types of Peyer's patches in sheep. Adv Exp Med Biol 186:101–109Google Scholar
  42. Rosner AJ, Keren DF (1984) Demonstration of M-cells in the specialized follicle-associated epithelium overlying isolated lymphoid follicles in the gut. J Leukocyte Biol 35:397–404Google Scholar
  43. Schofield GC, Cahill RNP (1969) Intestinal and cloacal lymphoepithelial glands in the Australian echidna: a possible homologue of the bursa of Fabricius. J Anat 105:447–456Google Scholar
  44. Scott GBD (1982) Mucosal microhernias in the nonhuman primate colon: their role in the pathogenesis of colonic disease. Vet Pathol 19 [Suppl 7]:134–140Google Scholar
  45. Smith MW, Jarvis LG, King IS (1980) Cell proliferation in follicle-associated epithelium of mouse Peyer's patch. Am J Anat 159:157–166Google Scholar
  46. Spencer J, Finn T, Isaacson PG (1986) Human Peyer's patches: an immunohistochemical study. Gut 27:405–410Google Scholar
  47. Szakal AK, Tew JG (1992) Microenvironment. In: Roitt IM, Delves PJ (eds) Encyclopedia of immunology, vol 3. Academic Press, London, pp 1072–1074Google Scholar
  48. Torres-Medina A (1981) Morphologic characteristics of the epithelial surface of aggregated lymphoid follicles (Peyer's patches) in the small intestine of newborn gnotobiotic calves and pigs. Am J Vet Res 42:232–236Google Scholar
  49. Waksman BH, Ozer H, Blythman HE (1973) Appendix and M-antibody formation VI. The functional anatomy of the rabbit appendix. Lab Invest 28:614Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stewart Lowden
    • 1
  • Trevor Heath
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anatomical SciencesUniversity of Queensland BrisbaneQueenslandAustralia

Personalised recommendations