Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 6, Issue 2–4, pp 137–166 | Cite as

The acidity problem — An outline of concepts

  • Svante Odén


The nature and extent of acid precipitation is reviewed. Studies have shown that significant decreases in the pH of rain have occurred in Scandinavia and the northeastern United States during the last two decades. This increased acidity correlates well with anthropogenic activities that emit acidifying substances into the atmosphere. Problems of measurement and interpretation are discussed. Finally, a review of acid precipitation's impact on surface waters and on soils is presented.


Precipitation Atmosphere United States Surface Water Acidity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Odén, S.: 1968, The acidification of air and precipitation and its consequences on the natural environment. Swedish Nat. Sci. Res. Council, Ecology Committee, Bul. 1, p. 68. (In Swedish.) Also: Tr-1172, Translation Consultants, Ltd., Arlington, Va., U.S.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Gorham, E.: 1955, Geochim. et cosmochim. Acta 7, 231.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Gorham, E.: 1958, Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 84, 274.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Gorham, E.: 1958, Nature 181, 106.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Gorham, E.: 1958, Ecology 39, 770.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Environmental Research: 1967, Statens offentliga utredningar, 43 (in Swedish).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Likens, G. E. and Bormann, F. H.: 1974, Science 184, 1176.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Brosset, C.: 1973, Ambio 2, 2.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Charlson, R. J., Vanderpol, A. H., Coveit, D. S., Waggoner, A. P., and Ahlquist, N. C.: 1974, Atmospheric Environment 8, 1257.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Granat, L.: 1972, Tellus 24, 550.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Cogbill, C. V. and Likens, G. E.: 1974, WaterResources Research 10(6), 1133.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Rodhe, H.: 1971, Measurements of sulfur in the free atmosphere over Sweden 1969–1970. Int. Met. Inst., Report AC 12.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Air Pollution Across National Boundaries: 1971, The impact on the environment of sulfur in air and precipitation (ed. B. Bolin). Sweden's Case Study for the United Nations conference on the human environment. Stockholm, 1971.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Brosset, C.: 1975, private communication, at a seminar in Stockholm.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Eriksson, E.: 1969, IVL's konferenshandlingar 86, 95 (in Swedish).Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Odén, S. and Ahl, T.: 1970, Yme, Årsbok 103, 122. (Swedish with English summary.)Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Odén, S. and Bergholm, J.: 1971, The chemistry of snow. 1. Procedures during melting. MS, p. 9.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Hagen, A. and Langeland, A.: 1973, Environ. Pollut. 5, 45.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Henriksen, A., Dale, T., and Haugen, S.: 1974, Melting of polluted snow in a lysimetre at constant temperature. SNSF, Internal Report 1, p. 18 (in Norwegian).Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Hultberg, H.: 1975, Concentration of acid compounds and some biological effects on surface waters in western Sweden. IVL, Report B 247, 44–47 (in Swedish).Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Odén, S. and Ahl, T.: 1972, The long-term changes in the pH of lakes and rivers in Sweden. Supporting studies to Sweden's Case Study (ref. 13), p. 13, 1972.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Odén, S. and Ahl, T.: The Sulfur Budget of Sweden (in preparation).Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Andersson, R.: 1971, Studies of base saturation, exchange capacity and adsorbed ions of forest soils in Scandinavia. Thesis for the degree of Agronomy, p. 33 (in Swedish).Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Bartling, M.: 1971, Studies of pH and buffer capacity of forest soils in Scandinavia. Thesis for the degree of Agronomy, p. 40 (in Swedish).Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Odén, S. and Andersson, R.: 1972, The long-term changes in the chemistry of soils in Scandinavia due to acid precipitation. Supporting studies to Sweden's Case Study (ref. 13), p. 19.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Odén, S. and Andersson, R.: Mechanisms and the integrated effect of soil acidification (in preparation).Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Jonsson, B. and Sundberg, R.: 1972, Has the acidification by atmospheric pollution caused a growth reduction in Swedish forests? Royal College of Forestry, Research Notes 20, p. 46.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Westman, L.: 1974, Ambio 3, 189.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Dahl, E. and Skre, O.: 1971, An investigation of the effect of acid precipitation on land productivity. Nordforsk, Miljövardssekretariatet, Publ. 1, 27 (in Norwegian).Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Lundmark, J. E.: 1974, Use of site properties for assessing site index in stands of Scots pine and Norway spruce. Department of Forest Ecology and Forest Soils, Research Notes 16, p. 298. Royal College of Forestry, Stockholm (Swedish with English summary).Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Odén, S.: 1974, Skogs- och Lantbruksakad. Tidskr. 113, 45 (in Swedish).Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Pierre, W.: 1931, Ind. Eng. Chem. 23, 1440.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    Andersson, R.: 1973/74, Grundförbättring 26, 11. (In Swedish with English summary.)Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Gran, O., Hultberg, H. and Landner, L.: 1974, Ambio 3, 93.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Odén, S. and Ahl, T.: 1974, Man-made changes of the Scandinavian environment and the Baltic Sea. 19th Congress of the International Association of Limnology, Winnipeg, Canada (not in print).Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    [36]National Academy of Sciences (U.S.A.). Atmospheric Chemistry: 1975, Problems and Scope. Panel on Atmospheric Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences (U.S.A.). Washington DC, 130 pp.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    Frohliger, J. O. and Kane, R.: 1975, Science 189, 455.Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    Likens, G. E., Johnson, N. M., Galloway, J. N., and Bormann, F. H.: 1976, Science 190, in press.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    Reuss, J. O.: 1975, Chemical/Biological Relationships relevant to Ecological Effects of Acid Rainfall. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.A.) 660/3-75-032, 46 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Svante Odén
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Soil Sciences, Division of EcochemistryAgricultural CollegeUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations