Advertisement

Delta-doping of semiconductors

  • J. J. Harris
Review

Abstract

The structural, electrical and optical properties of epitaxial semiconductor layers, delta-doped with impurity atoms, are reviewed. The majority of the discussion relates to GaAs, the most-studied material, but where possible, results for Si and other semiconductors will be presented. Although the ideal situation is one of dopant atoms confined to a single atomic plane, there are several factors, such as diffusion and segregation, which broaden the profiles, and techniques to minimize these effects are discussed. The electrostatic attraction between free carriers and ionized dopants results in a V-shaped potential well, perpendicular to the dopant plane, which confines the carriers into a quasi-two-dimensional sheet, and quantizes their energy into a series of sub-bands. This has significant consequences for the electrical and optical properties of the layers, and results of such measurements on these structures are presented. Several features of delta-doped layers are attractive for exploitation in devices, and this is illustrated by reference to a number of novel or improved device designs.

Keywords

GaAs Optical Property Material Processing Free Carrier Impurity Atom 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    S. J. BASS, J. Cryst. Growth, 47 (1979) 613.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    C. E. C. WOOD, G. METZE, J. BERRY and L. EASTMAN, J. Appl. Phys. 51 (1980) 383.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. J. MALIK, T. R. AUCOIN, R. L. ROSS, K. BOARD, C. E. C. WOOD and L. F. EASTMAN, Electron. Lett. 16 (1980) 836.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. BOARD, A. CHANDRA, C. E. C. WOOD, S. JUDA-PRAWIRA and L. F. EASTMAN, IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. ED-28 (1981) 506.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. F. SCHUBERT, A. FISHER and K. PLOOG, ibid. IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. ED-33 (1986) 625.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. J. HARRIS, D. E. ASHENFORD, C. T. FOXON, P. J. DOBSON and B. A. JOYCE, Appl. Phys. A33 (1984) 87.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. ZRENNER, H. REISINGER, F. KOCH and K. PLOOG, Proceedings of Seventeenth International Conference on Physics of Semiconductors, San Francisco, 1984, ed. D. J. CHADI (Springer, NY, 1985) p. 325.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. F. SCHUBERT, Y. HORIKOSHI and K. PLOOG, Phys. Rev. B 32 (1985) 1085.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. PLOOG, M. HAUSER and A. FISHER, Appl. Phys. A45 (1988) 233.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    E. F. SCHUBERT, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A8 (1990) 2980.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. J. HARRIS, J. B. CLEGG, R. B. BEALL, J. CASTAGNÉ, K. WOODBRIDGE, and C. ROBERTS, J. Cryst. Growth 111 (1991) 239.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. SAKAKI, M. TANAKA and J. YOSHINO, Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 24 (1985) 1417.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    B. F. LEWIS, F. J. GRUNTHANER, A. MADHUKAR, T. C. LEE and R. FERNANDEZ, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B3 (1985) 1317.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. ZHANG, P. DAWSON, J. H. NEAVE, K. J. HUGILL, I. GALBRAITH, P. N. FAWCETT and B. A. JOYCE, J. Appl. Phys. 68 (1990) 5595.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    E. J. HELLER and M. G. LAGALLY, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60 (1992) 2675.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. HOFMANN and J. ERLEWEIN, Surf. Sci. 77 (1978) 591.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    C. E. C. WOOD and B. A. JOYCE, J. Appl. Phys. 49 (1978) 4854.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. B. BEALL, J. B. CLEGG and J. J. HARRIS, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 3 (1988) 612.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. B. BEALL, J. J. HARRIS, J. B. CLEGG, J. P. GOWERS, B. A. JOYCE, J. CASTAGNE and V. WELCH, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 96 (1989) 17.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. M. LANZILLOTTO, M. SANTOS and M. SHAYEGAN J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A8 (1990) 2009.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. JANSEN, M. MEURIS, M. Van ROSSUM and G. BORGHS, J. Appl. Phys. 68 (1990) 3766.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    E. F. SCHUBERT, J. M. KUO, R. F. KOPF, H. S. LUFTMAN, L. C. HOPKINS and N. J. SAUER, ibid. J. Appl. Phys. 67 (1990) 1969.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. B. CLEGG and R. B. BEALL, Surf. Interface Anal. 14 (1989) 307.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    P. BLOOD and J. J. HARRIS, J. Appl. Phys. 56 (1984) 993.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    S. H. OVERBURY, P. A. BERTRAND and G. A. SOMORJAI, Chem. Res. 75 (1975) 547.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. ANDRIEU, F. Arnaud D'AVITAYA and J. C. PFISTER, J. Appl. Phys. 65 (1989) 2681.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    L. GONZALEZ, J. B. CLEGG, D. HILTON, J. P. GOWERS, C. T. FOXON and B. A. JOYCE, Appl. Phys. A41 (1986) 237.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    K. H. NICHOLS, R. E. GOLDWASSER and C. M. WOLFE, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36 (1980) 60.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. J. HARRIS, J. B. CLEGG, R. B. BEALL and J. CASTAGNÉ, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 5 (1990) 785.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. E. CUNNINGHAM, T. H. CHIU, B. TELL and W. JAN J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8 (1990) 157.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. E. CUNNINGHAM, M. WILLIAMS, T. H. CHIU, W. JAN, F. STORZ and E. WESTERWICK, J. Cryst. Growth 120 (1992) 306.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    N. KOBAYASHI, T. MAKIMOTO and Y. HORIKOSHI, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25 (1986) L746.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. OURMAZD, J. CUNNINGHAM, W. JAN, J. A. RENTSCHLER and W. SCHROTER, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56 (1990) 854.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. T. ASOM, G. LIVESCU, M. GEVA, V. SWAMINATHAN, L. C. LUTHER, R. E. LEIBENGUTH, V. D. MATTERA, E. F. SCHUBERT, J. M. KUO and R. KOPF, J. Cryst. Growth 111 (1991) 246.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. KONAGAI, T. YAMADA, T. AKATSUKA, S. NOZAKI, R. MIYAKE, K. SAITO, T. FUKAMACHI, E. TOKUMITSU and K. TAKAHASHI, ibid. J. Cryst. Growth 105 (1990) 359.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    J. NAGLE, R. J. MALIK and D. GERSHONI, ibid. J. Cryst. Growth 111 (1991) 264.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    T. H. CHIU, J. E. CUNNINGHAM, J. A. DITZENBERGER, W. Y. JAN and S. N. G. CHU, ibid. J. Cryst. Growth 111 (1991) 274.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    C. R. ABERNATHY, S. J. PEARTON, F. REN, W. S. HOBSON, T. R. FULLOWAN, A. KATZ, A. S. JORDAN and J. KOVALCHIK,ibid. J. Cryst. Growth 105 (1990) 375.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    R. A. METZGER and F. G. ALLEN, J. Appl. Phys. 55 (1984) 931.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    R. A. A. KUBIAK, W. Y. LEONG and E. H. C. PARKER, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B3 (1985) 592.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Idem. R. A. A. KUBIAK, W. Y. LEONG and E. H. C. PARKER, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46 (1985) 565.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    H. P. ZEINDL, T. WEGEHAUPT, I. EISELE, H. OPPOLZER, R. REISINGER, G. TEMPEL and F. KOCH, ibid. Appl. Phys. Lett. 50 (1987) 1164.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    A. A. Van GORKUM, K. NAKAGAWAAND, Y. SHIRAKI, J. Appl. Phys. 65 (1989) 9485.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    H. J. GOSSMANN, E. F. SCHUBERT, D. J. EAGLESHAM and M. CERULLO, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57 (1990) 2441.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    A. R. POWELL, R. A. A. KUBIAK, T. E. WHALL and D. K. BOWEN, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 23 (1990) 1745.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    E. F. SCHUBERT, J. B. STARK, T. H. CHIU and B. TELL, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53 (1988) 293.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    E. F. SCHUBERT, C. W. TU, R. F. KOPF, J. M. KUO and L. M. LUNARDI, ibid. Appl. Phys. Lett. 54 (1989) 2592.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    R. B. BEALL, J. B. CLEGG, J. CASTAGNÉ, J. J. HARRIS, R. MURRAY and R. C. NEWMAN, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 4 (1989) 1171.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    M. E. GREINER and J. F. GIBBONS, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44 (1984) 750.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    A. MOHADES-KASSEI, M. R. BROZEL, R. MURRAY and R. C. NEWMAN, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 106 (1990) 471.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    S. J. FUKATSU, S. KUBO, Y. SHIRAKI and R. ITO, J. Cryst. Growth. 111 (1991) 843.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    C. GRATTEPAIN, A. M. HUBER, E. BARBIER and G. GILLMAN, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 95 (1988) 63.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    A. ZRENNER and F. KOCH, ibid. Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 95 (1988) 1.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    G. GILLMAN, B. VINTER, E. BARBIER and A. TARDELLA, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52 (1988) 972.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    M. J. ASHWIN, M. FAHY, J. J. HARRIS, R. C. NEW-MAN, D. A. SAMSON, R. ADINALL, D. S. MCPHAIL and V. K. M. SHARMA, J. Appl. Phys., 73 (1993) 633.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    J. J. HARRIS, B. A. JOYCE, J. P. GOWERS and J. H. NEAVE, Appl. Phys. A28 (1982) 63.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    H. P. ZEINDL, B. BULLEMER, I. EISELE and G. TEMPEL, J. Electrochem. Soc. 136 (1989) 1129.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    H. L. STÖRMER, R. DINGLE, A. C. GOSSARD, W. WEIGMANN and M. STURGE, Solid State Commun. 29 (1979) 705.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    D. C. TSUI, H. L. STÖRMER and A. C. GOSSARD, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48 (1982) 1559.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    F. I. B. WILLIAMS, P. A. WRIGHT, R. G. CLARK, E. Y. ANDREI, G. DEVILLE, D. C. GLATTLI, O. PROBST, B. ETIENNE, C. DORIN, C. T. FOXON and J. J. HARRIS ibid. Phys. Rev. Lett. 66 (1991) 3285.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    A. ZRENNER, F. KOCH and K. PLOOG, Surf. Sci. 196 (1988) 6741.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    M. SANTOS, T. SAJOTO, A. ZRENNER and M. SHAYEGAN, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53 (1988) 2504.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    O. MEZRIN and A. SHIK, S'latt. and M'struct. 10 (1991) 107.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    E. A. JOHNSON, A. MACKINNON, E. P. O'REILLY and M. SILVER, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 7 (1992) 165.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    M. ZACHAU, F. KOCH, K. PLOOG, P. ROENTGEN and H. BENEKING, Solid State Commun. 59 (1986) 591.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    H. M. LI, K. F. BERGGREN, W-X NI, B. E. SERNELIUS, M. WILLANDER and G. V. HANSSON, J. Appl. Phys. 67 (1990) 1962.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    S. BENDING, C. ZHANG, K. Von KLITZING and K. PLOOG, Phys. Rev. B39 (1989) 1097.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    E. SKURAS, R. KUMAR, R. L. WILLIAMS, R. A. STRADLING, J. DMOCHOWSKI, E. A. JOHNSON, A. MACKINNON, J. J. HARRIS, R. B. BEALL, C. SKIER-BESZEWSKI, J. SINGLETON, P. J. Van Der WEL and P. WISNIEWSKI, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 6 (1991) 535.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    S. YAMADA and T. MAKIMOTO, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57 (1990) 1022.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    P. M. KOENRAAD, B. F. A. Van HEST, F. A. P. BLOM, R. Van DALEN, M. LEYS, J. A. A. J. PEERENBOOM and J. H. WOLTER, Physica B177 (1992) 485.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    J. J. HARRIS, R. MURRAY and C. T. FOXON, Semicond. Sci. Technol., 8 (1993) 31.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    A. ZRENNER, H. REISINGER, F. KOCH, K. PLOOG and J. C. MAAN, Phys. Rev. B33 (1986) 5607.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    R. L. WILLIAMS, E. SKURAS, R. A. STRADLING, R. B. BEALL and J. J. HARRIS, Proceedings of Nineteenth International Conference on Physics of Semiconductors, Warsaw, ed. W. Zawadski (1988) 397.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    G. KIDO, S. YAMADA and T. MAKIMOTO, Physica B177 (1992) 433.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    R. L. WILLIAMS, E. SKURAS, R. A. STRADLING, R. DROOPAD, S. N. HOLMES and S. D. PARKER, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 5 (1990) S338.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    W. P. HONG, A. ZRENNER, O. H. KIM, F. de ROSA, J. HARBISON and L. T. FLOREZ, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57 (1990) 1117.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    R. L. HEADRICK, A. F. J. LEVI, H. S. LUFTMAN, J. KOVALCHIK and L. C. FELDMAN, Phys. Rev. B43 (1991) 14711.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    N. L. MATTEY, T. A. WHALL, R. A. A. KUBIAK and M. J. KEARNEY, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 7 (1992) 604.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    N. L. MATTEY, T. A. WHALL, R. BISWAS, R. A. A. KUBIAK and M. J. KEARNEY, Phil. Mag., B66 (1992) 379.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    R. CINGOLANI and K. PLOOG, Adv. Phys. 40 (1991) 535.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    J. C. M. HENNING, Y. A. R. R. KESSENER, P. M. KOENRAAD, M. R. LEYS, W. Van Der VLEUTEN, J. H. WOLTER and A. M. FRENS, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 6 (1991) 1079.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    H. MEJRI, S. ALAYA, H. MAAREF, J. C. BOURGOIN and B. ETIENNE, ibid. Semicond. Sci. Technol. 5 (1990) 900.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    B. ULLRICH, C. ZHANG and K. Von KLITZING, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54 (1989) 1133.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    A. C. MACIEL, M. TATHAM, J. F. RYAN, J. M. WORLOCK, R. E. NAHORY, J. P. HARBISON and L. T. FLOREZ, Surf. Sci. 228 (1990) 251.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    M. L. KE, J. S. RIMMER, B. HAMILTON, J. H. EVANS, M. MISSOUS, K. E. SINGER and P. ZALM, Phys. Rev. B45 (1992).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    E. F. SCHUBERT, T. D. HARRIS, J. CUNNINGHAM and W. JAN, ibid. Phys. Rev. B39 (1989) 11011.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    E. F. SCHUBERT, Surf. Sci. 228 (1990) 240.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    E. F. SCHUBERT, A. FISHER, Y. HORIKOSHI and K. PLOOG, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47 (1985) 219.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    J. WAGNER, A. FISCHER and K. PLOOG, Phys. Rev. B42 (1990) 7280.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Idem. J. WAGNER, A. FISCHER and K. PLOOG Appl. Phys. Lett. 59 (1991) 429.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Y. C. SHIH and B. G. STREETMAN, ibid. Appl. Phys. Lett. 59 (1991) 1344.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    R. A. ABRAM, G. J. REES and B. L. H. WILSON, Adv. Phys. 27 (1978) 799.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    H. ONO and T. BABA, Materials Sci. Forum 83–87 (1992) 1409.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    J. WAGNER, M. RAMSTEINER, W. STOLZ, M. HAUSER and K. PLOOG, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55 (1989) 987.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    O. BRANDT, G. E. CROOK, K. PLOOG, J. WAGNER and M. MAIER, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59 (1991) 2730.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    D. RICHARDS, J. WAGNER, M. RAMSTEINER, V. EKENBERG, G. FASOL and K. PLOOG, Surf. Sci. 267 (1992) 61.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    N. SCHWARZ, F. MULLER, G. TEMPEL, F. KOCH and G. WEIMANN, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 4 (1989) 571.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    G. TEMPEL, N. SCHWARTZ, F. MULLER, F. KOCH, H. P. ZEINDL and I. EISELE, Thin Solid Films 184 (1990) 171.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    K. L. WANG, R. P. G. KARUNASIRI and J. S. PARK, Surf. Sci. 267 (1992) 74.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    A. A. BERNUSSI, F. IIKAWA, P. MOTISUKE, P. BASMAJI, M. Siu LI and O. HIPPOLITO, J. Appl. Phys. 67 (1990) 4149.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    P. M. KOENRAAD, F. A. P. BLOM, C. J. G. M. LANGERAK, M. R. LEYS, J. A. A. J. PERENBOOM, J. SINGLETON, S. J. R. M. SPERMON, W. C. Van Der VLEUTEN, A. P. J. VONCKEN and J. H. WOLTER, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 5 (1990) 861.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    E. A. JOHNSON and A. MACKINNON, s'latt. and m'struct. 9 (1991) 441.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    D. LANG, R. LOGAN and M. JAROS, Phys. Rev. B19 (1979) 1015.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    D. J. CHADI and K. J. CHANG, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61 (1988) 873.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    “Physics of DX Centers in GaAs Alloys”, Solid State Phenomena 10 (Sci-Tech Publications, Brookfield, USA, 1989).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    W. JANTSCH and R. A. STRADLING, eds D(X) Centres and Other Metastable Defects in Semiconductors (Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, 1991).Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    K. MAUDE, J. C. PORTAL, L. DMOWSKI, T. FOSTER, L. EAVES, M. NATHAN, M. HEIBLUM, J. J. HARRIS and R. B. BEALL, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59 (1987) 815.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    T. N. THEIS, P. M. MOONEY and S. L. WRIGHT, ibid. Phys. Rev. Lett. 60 (1988) 361.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    M. MIZUTA, M. TACHIKAWA, H. KIKIMOTO and S. MINAMURA, Jpn J. App. Phys. 24 (1985) L143.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    B. ETIENNE and V. THIERRY-MIEG, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52 (1988) 1237.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    A. ZRENNER, F. KOCH, R. L. WILLIAMS, R. A. STRADLING, K. PLOOG and G. WEIMANN, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 3 (1988) 1203.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    A. ZRENNER, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55 (1989) 157.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    T-H. SHEN, A. C. FORD, M. ELLIOTT, R. H. WILLIAMS, D. I. WESTWOOD, D. A. WOOLF, J. P. MARLOW, J. E. AUBREY and G. HILL, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B10 (1992) 1757.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    F. CAPASSO, A. Y. CHO, K. MOHAMMED and P. W. FOY, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46 (1985) 664.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    M. P. HOUNG, Y. H. WANG, H. H. CHEN, H. C. WIE and Y. H. LEE, J. Appl. Phys. 71 (1992) 780.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    J. BRUNNER, R. A. STRADLING, I. T. FERGUSON, E. A. JOHNSON, A. MCKINNON, F. COPPINGER, A. RIVERS and F. KOCH, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 6 (1991) 1025.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    R. L. WANG, Y. K. SU, Y. H. WANG and K. F. YARN, IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. ED-11 (1990) 428.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    J. M. WOODCOCK and J. J. HARRIS, Electron. Lett. 19 (1983) 93.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    E. F. SCHUBERT, J. E. CUNNINGHAM, W. T. TSANG and T. H. CHIU, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49 (1986) 292.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    N. PAN, J. CARTER, G. S. JACKSON, H. HENDRICKS, X. L. ZHENG and M. H. KIM, ibid. Appl. Phys. Lett. 59 (1991) 458.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    A. A. Van GORKUM, K. NAKAGAWA and Y. SHIRAKI, J. Cryst. Growth 95 (1989) 480.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    B. ETIENNE and E. PARIS, J. Physique 48 (1987) 2049.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    E. F. SCHUBERT, L. PFEIFFER, K. W. WEST and A. IZABELLE, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54 (1989) 1350.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    C. T. FOXON, J. J. HARRIS, D. HILTON, J. HEWETT and C. ROBERTS, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 4 (1989) 582.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    L. PFEIFFER, K. W. WEST, H. L. STORMER and K. W. BALDWIN, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55 (1989) 1888.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    M. J. KANE, M. T. EMENY, N. APSLEY, C. R. WHITE-HOUSE and D. LEE, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 3 (1988) 722.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. J. Harris
    • 1
  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Research Centre for Semiconductor Materials, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial CollegeLondonUK

Personalised recommendations