GeoJournal

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 91–108 | Cite as

Nomadic pastoralism and irrigated agriculture in Somalia

Utilization of existing land use patterns in designs for multiple access of “high potential” areas of semi-arid Africa
  • Unruh Jon D. 
Migration and Identity Change in the Sudan

Abstract

The persistent interplay of food production problems, land degradation, and social and climatic difficulties on the Horn of Africa result in recurring famines in spite of vast sums of money spent on agricultural development. As land resources — which undergird both social and production systems in Africa — become increasingly degraded, development efforts, especially in problematic areas, need to become part of comprehensive resource use programs that take into account the existing regional land use ecology. Designs which disrupt the ecology of established land uses can lead to extensive degradation because such uses are linked to wider areas; and the effects of such disruption can ultimately threaten the viability of the proposed schemes themselves.

While African agriculture has traditionally met greater food needs by expanding the area under cultivation and irrigation, the increasing scarcity of new high quality arable land means that multiple use of “high potential” areas will become a priority. This paper describes a multiple land use in a “high potential” river basin of Somalia, in the context of the existing use patterns involved in irrigated agriculture and nomadic pastoralism. The spatial and temporal access and use of resources are analyzed, and recommendations made for improving the integration of these production systems.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, M.: Merging relief and development: the case of the Turkana. Development Policy Review 4, 314–324 (1986)Google Scholar
  2. Adams, W. M.: Scale control and success in Kenyan irrigation. World Development 18, 1309–1323 (1990)Google Scholar
  3. Adams, W. M.; Carter, R. C.: Small-scale irrigation in Sub-Saharan Africa. Progress in Physical Geography 11, 1–27 (1987)Google Scholar
  4. Adams, W. M.; Grove, A. T.: Epilogue: perspectives on African irrigation. In: Adams, W. M.; Grove, A. T. (eds.), Irrigation in Tropical Africa, pp. 142–148. Cambridge University African Studies Department, African Monograph No. 3, Cambridge 1984.Google Scholar
  5. Agnew, C.; Warren, A.: Sand trap: agriculture, not desert, is the greatest threat to arid land. Department of Geography, University College, London 1990.Google Scholar
  6. Barnett, T.: The Gezira Scheme: An Illusion of Development. Frank Cass, London 1977.Google Scholar
  7. Battersby, J.: Mozambique's frail aid lifeline. The Christian Science Monitor (September 5, 1990)Google Scholar
  8. Bennett, J. W.: Political ecology and development projects affecting pastoralist peoples in east Africa. Land Tenure Center Research Paper No. 80. Land Tenure Center, Madison, Wisconsin 1984.Google Scholar
  9. Berry, E.; Berry, L.; Karaska, G.: A conceptualization of African river basin planning. In: Problems and Issues in African River Basin Planning, US Agency for International Development No. PNAAW-222, 1985.Google Scholar
  10. Berry, E.; Berry, L.: African river bassin development. In: Problems and Issues in African River Basin Planning, US Agency for International Development No. PNAAW-222, 1985.Google Scholar
  11. Biswas, A. K.; Masakhalia, Y. F. O.; Odero-Ogwel, L. A.; Pallangyo, E. P.: Land use and farming systems in the Horn of Africa. Land Use Policy 4, 419–443 (1987)Google Scholar
  12. Box, T.: Range resources of Somalia. Journal of Range Management 21, 388–392 (1968)Google Scholar
  13. Box, T. W.: Nomadism and land use in Somalia. Economic Develpment and Cultural Change 19, 222–228 (1971)Google Scholar
  14. Breman, H.; Cisse, A. M.; Djiteye, M. A.; Elberse, W. Th.: Pasture and forage availability in the Sahel. Israel Journal of Botany 28, 227–251 (1979)Google Scholar
  15. Burkhalter, H.: In Somalia, famine as politics. The Christian Science Monitor (December 4, 1990)Google Scholar
  16. Campbell, D. J.: Land-use competition at the margins of the rangelands: an issue in development strategies for semi-arid areas. In: Norcliffe, G.; Pinfold, T. (eds.), Planning African Development, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado 1981.Google Scholar
  17. Carruthers, I.; Clark, C.: The Economics of Irrigation. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool 1981.Google Scholar
  18. Carter, R. C.: Small-Scale Irrigation in Africa. A Casebook. FAO-Silsoie College, FAO, Rome 1986.Google Scholar
  19. Charneau, C.: Organic matter and biochemical properties of soil in the dry tropical zone of west Africa. FAO Soils Bulletin 27, 313–336 (1975)Google Scholar
  20. Castro, J. de: The Geography of Hunger. Little, Brown & Co., Boston 1952.Google Scholar
  21. Chatterton, B.; Chatterton, L.: Alleviating land degradation and increasing cereal and livestock production in north Africa and the Middle East using annual medicago pasture. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Development 11, 117–129 (1984)Google Scholar
  22. Christiansson, C.; Tobisson, E.: Environmental degradation as a consequence of socio-political conflicts in eastern Mara region. In: Hjort af Ornas, A.; Salih, M. A. (eds.), Ecology and Politics: Environmental Stress and Security in Africa. Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, Stockholm 1989.Google Scholar
  23. Clark, N. T.: The effect of the 1973/1974 drought in Somalia on subsequent exports and registered slaughterings of camels, sheep, goats and cattle. Nomadic Peoples 17, 53–57 (1985)Google Scholar
  24. Conze, P., Labahn, P. (eds.): Somalia: Agriculture in the Winds of Change. Schafbrücke Publishers, Saarbrücken 1986.Google Scholar
  25. Coward, E. W.: Technical and social change in currently irrigated regions: rules, roles, and rehabilitation. In: Cernea, M. M. (ed.): Putting People first: Sociological Variables in Rural Development. Oxford University Press, for the World Bank, Washington, DC 1985.Google Scholar
  26. Darling, F. F.; Farvar, M. A.: Ecological consequences of sedentarization of Nomads. In: Farvar, M. T.; Milton, J. P. (eds.), The Careless Technology: Ecology and International Development. The Natural History Press, Garden City, New York 1984.Google Scholar
  27. Davis, R. K.: Some issues in the evolution, organization and operation of group ranches in Kenya. East African Journal of Rural Development 4, 22–33 (1971)Google Scholar
  28. Dorgan, B.; Wheat, A.: Horn of Africa Recovery and Food Security Act of 1991. H. R. 1454 House of Representatives 102d Congress, 1st Session, March 14, 1991.Google Scholar
  29. Drechsel, P.: Soils and reforestation in the central rangelands of Somalia. Arid Soil Research 3, 41–64 (1989)Google Scholar
  30. Dyson, Hudson, N.: Pastoral production systems and livestock development projects: an East African Perspective. In: Cernea, M. M. (ed.), Putting People First: Sociological Variables in Rural Development. Oxford University Press, London 1985.Google Scholar
  31. Economist, The: African famines: yet again. The Economist (January 5, 1991a)Google Scholar
  32. Economist, The: The green counter-revolution. The Economist (April 20, 1991b)Google Scholar
  33. Economist, The: The Horn is empty. The Economist (May 11, 1991c)Google Scholar
  34. Evangelou, P.: Livestock Development in Kenya's Masailand. Westview Press, Boulder, CO 1984.Google Scholar
  35. Famine Early Warning Systems (FEWS): Harvest assessment of cereal production, January 1991. FEWS Project, Tulane/Progma Group, Arlington, VA 1991.Google Scholar
  36. Field, D. I.: Grazing capacity of rangelands. Technical Note No. 2, Somali Range Bulletin 11, National Range Agency, Mogadishu, Somalia (1980)Google Scholar
  37. Fitzgerald, M. A.: Again, famine is raging in Ethiopia. The Washington Times (March 20, 1990)Google Scholar
  38. Forrest, T.: Agricultural policies in Nigeria. In: Heyer, J.; Roberts, P.; Williams, G. (eds.), Rural Development in Tropical Africa, pp. 222–250. Macmillan, London 1981.Google Scholar
  39. Frantz, C.: Contraction and expansion in Nigerian bovine pastoralism. In: Monad, T. (ed.), Pastoralism in Tropical Africa, pp. 338–353, International African Institute, Oxford University Press, London 1975.Google Scholar
  40. Glantz, M. H.: Drought, famine and the seasons in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Climate and Human Health, Proceedings of the Symposium. Vol. I, 22–26 September 1986.Google Scholar
  41. Goldsmith, E.; Hildyard, N.: World agriculture: toward 2000, FAO's plan to feed the world. The Ecologist 21, 81–92 (1991)Google Scholar
  42. Gulliver, P. H.: The Family Herds: A Study in Two Pastoral Tribes in East Africa: The Jie and the Turkana. Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., London 1955.Google Scholar
  43. Handulle, A. A.; Gay, C. W.: Development and traditional development in Somalia. Nomadic Peoples 24, 36–43 (1987)Google Scholar
  44. Hankins, T. D.: Response to drought in Sukumaland, Tanzania. In: White, G. F. (ed.), Natural Hazards, Local, National, Global. Oxford University Press, London 1974.Google Scholar
  45. Hare, K. F.; Kates, R. W.: Warren, A.: The making of deserts: climate, ecology and society. Economic Geography 53, 332–346 (1977)Google Scholar
  46. Harrison, P.: The Greening of Africa: Breaking Through in the Battle for Land and Food. Paladin Grafton Books, London 1987.Google Scholar
  47. Hazelwood, A.; Livingstone, I.: Irrigation Economics in Poor Countries. Pergamon, Oxford 1982.Google Scholar
  48. Hitchcock, R.; Hussein, H.: Agricultural and non-agricultural settlements for drought-afflicted pastorialists in Somalia. Disasters 30–39 (1987)Google Scholar
  49. Hogg, R.: Development in Kenya: drought, development and food scarity. African Affairs 86, 47–58 (1987)Google Scholar
  50. Hogg, R.: Irrigation agriculture and pastoral development: a lesson from Kenya. Development and Change 14, 577–591 (1983)Google Scholar
  51. Horowitz, M. M.; Salem-Murdock, M.: The political economy of desertification in White Nile province, Sudan. In: Little, P. D.; Horowitz, A. E.; Nyerges, A. E. (eds.), Lands at Risk in the Third World: Local Level Perspectives. Westview Press, London 1987.Google Scholar
  52. Ibrahim, F. N.: Ecology and land use changes in the semiarid zone of the Sudan. In: Little, P. D.; Horowitz, A. E.; Nyerges, A. E. (eds.), Lands at Risk in the Third World: Local Level Perspectives. Westview Press, London 1987.Google Scholar
  53. Jacobson, J. L.: Environmental Refuges: a yardstick of habitability. Worldwatch Paper 86 (1988)Google Scholar
  54. Jahnke, H. E.: Livestock Production Systems and Livestock Development in Tropical Africa. Kieler Wissenschaftsverlag Vauk, Kiel 1982.Google Scholar
  55. Johnson, D. L.: Resource use in dry places: present status and potential solutions. In: Kates, R. W.; Burton, I. (eds.), Geography, Resources and Environment II: Themes from the Work of Gilbert F. White. University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1986.Google Scholar
  56. Kamm, H.: One sign of our times: world's refugee flood. The New York Times (August 12, 1990)Google Scholar
  57. Kimmage, K.: Small-scale irrigation initiatives in Nigeria: The problems of equity and sustainability. Applied Geography 11, 5–20 (1991)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lamprey, H. F.: Pastoralism yesterday and today: the over-grazing problem. In: Bourliere, F. (ed.), Tropical Savannas: Ecosystems of the World, Elsevier, Amsterdam 1983.Google Scholar
  59. Land Resources Development Center (LRDC): Land Use in Tsetse-Affected Areas of Southern Somalia. Tolworth Tower, Tolworth, Surbiton, KT6 7DY, UK 1985.Google Scholar
  60. Lewis, I. M.: Abaar: the Somali drought. International African Institute, Emergency Report 1, Oxford University Press 1975.Google Scholar
  61. Little, P. D.: Land use conflicts in the agricultural/pastoral borderland: the case of Kenya. In: Little, P. D.; Horowitz, A. E.; Nyerges, A. E. (eds.), Lands at Risk in the Third World: Local Level Perspectives. Westview Press, London 1987.Google Scholar
  62. Little, P. D.: Cricital socio-economic variables in African pastoral livestock development: toward a comparative framework. In: Simpson, J. R.; Evangelou, P. (eds.), Livestock Development in Subsaharan Africa: Constraints, Prospects, Policy. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado 1984.Google Scholar
  63. Little, P. D.: The livestock-grain connection in northern Kenya: an analysis of pastoral economics and semiarid land development. Rural Africana 15–16, 91–108 (1983)Google Scholar
  64. Lofchie, M. F.: Political and economic origins of African hunger. Journal of Modern African Studies 13, 551–567 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mabutt, J. A.: A new global assessment of the status and trends of desertification. Environmental Conservation 2 (1984)Google Scholar
  66. Magan, A.; Mukherjea, R.; Gosh, A.: An outbreak of scurvy in Somali refugee camps. Disaster 7, 94–97 (1983)Google Scholar
  67. Mann, R. D.: Time running out: the urgent need for tree planting in Africa. The Ecologist 20, 48–53 (1990)Google Scholar
  68. Massey, G.: Subsistence and Change: Lessons of Agropastoralism in Somalia. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado 1987.Google Scholar
  69. McCabe, J. T.: Success and failure: the breakdown of traditional drought coping institutions among the pastoral Turkana of Kenya. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 25, 146–159 (1990a)Google Scholar
  70. McCabe, J. T.: Turkana pastoralism: a case against the tragedy of the commons. Human Ecology 18, 81–103 (1990b)Google Scholar
  71. McCabe, J. T.: Drought and recovery: livestock dynamics among the Ngisonyoka of Kenya. Human Ecology 15, 371–389 (1987)Google Scholar
  72. McCown, R. L.; Haaland, G.; Haan, C. de: The interaction between cultivation and livestock production in semi-arid Africa. In: Ecological Studies 34, 297–332 (Monograph Series) 1976.Google Scholar
  73. Merryman, J. L.: Pastoral nomad settlement in response to drought: the case of the Kenya Somali. In: Hansen, A.; Oliver, A. (eds.), Involuntary Migration and Resettlement: the Problems and Responses of Dislocated People. Westview Press, Boulder, CO 1982.Google Scholar
  74. Ministry of Agriculture Meteorological Service: Precipitation. Ministry of Agriculture, Mogadishu, Somalia 1988.Google Scholar
  75. Moghraby, A. I., el; Ali. O. M. M.; Seed, M. T., el: Desertification in the western Sudan and strategies for rehabilitation. Environmental Conservation 14, 227–231 (1987)Google Scholar
  76. Mohamed, M. A.: Portrait of a dry region. Unasylva 33, 2–7 (1981)Google Scholar
  77. Morna, C. L.: Angola's food shortfall endangers thousands of internal refuges. The Christian Science Monitor (September 5, 1990)Google Scholar
  78. Murphy, C.: Emergency food reaches Ethiopian drought victims. The Washington Post (March 30, 1990)Google Scholar
  79. National Research Council (NRC): Environmental change in the west African Sahel: resource management for arid and semi-arid regions. National Academy Press, Washington, DC 1984.Google Scholar
  80. Oba, G.: Perception of environment among Kenyan pastoralists: implications for development. Nomadic Peoples 19, 33–57 (1985)Google Scholar
  81. Omerod, W. E.: The relationship between economic development and ecological degradation: how degradation has occurred in West Africa and how its progress might be halted. Journal of Arid Environments 1, 357–379 (1978)Google Scholar
  82. Ottaway, D. B.: U.S., Angola agrees on famine relief. The Washington Post (September 25, 1990)Google Scholar
  83. Ozanne, J.: Somalia — a human disaster in the making. The Bangkok Post (May 5, 1991)Google Scholar
  84. Palmer-Jones: Mismanaging the peasants: some origins of low productivity on irrigation schemes in the north of Nigeria. In: Adams, W. M.; Crove, A. T. (eds.), Irrigation in Tropical Africa. pp. 96–108. Cambridge University African Studies Department, African Monograph No. 3, Cambridge 1984.Google Scholar
  85. Pearce, F.: Africa at a watershed. New Scientist 129, 40–46 (1991a)Google Scholar
  86. Pearce, F.: A sea change in Sahel. New Scientist (2 February, 1991b)Google Scholar
  87. Perlez, J.: The hungry drift across the Sudan amid ominous signs of a new famine. The New York Times (November 16, 1990a)Google Scholar
  88. Perlez, J.: Food airlifts called insufficient in Ethiopia region. The New York Times (November 11, 1990b)Google Scholar
  89. Perlez, J.: Somalia, abandoned to its own civil war with other's weapons. The New York Times (January 6, 1991)Google Scholar
  90. Pollard, N.: The Gezira Scheme — a study in failure. The Ecologist 2, 21–31 (1981)Google Scholar
  91. Press, R. M.: Famine in Sudan and Ethiopia turns on peace talks. The Christian Science Monitor (December 8, 1989)Google Scholar
  92. Press, R. M.: Sudan drought threatens millions. The Christian Science Monitor (September 28, 1990)Google Scholar
  93. Prendergast, J.: Tortuous path to peace in East Africa. The Christian Science Monitor (February 26, 1990)Google Scholar
  94. Prothero, R. M.: A Geography of Africa: Regional Essays on Fundamental Characteristics, Issues and Problems. Frederick A Praeger, Publishers, New York 1969.Google Scholar
  95. Resource Management and Research (RMR): Somali Democratic Republic Southern Rangelands Survey. Vol 4, Part 1, 16B West Central St., London 1984.Google Scholar
  96. Riddell, J. C.: Land tenure issues in west African livestock and range development projects. Land Tenure Center Research Paper No. 77. Land Tenure Center, Madison, Wisconsin 1982.Google Scholar
  97. Riney, T.: Wildlife vs. nomadic stocks. Unasylva 31, 15–20 (1979)Google Scholar
  98. Roth, M.; Lemel, H.; Bruce, J.; Unruh, J.: An analysis of land tenure and water allocation issues in the Shalambood irrigation zone, Somalia. Land Tenure Center project report, University of Wisconsin, Madison 1987.Google Scholar
  99. Salem-Murdock, M.: The impact of agricultural development on a pastoral society: the Shukriya of the eastern Sudan. Institute for Development Anthropology Working Paper No. 17, Binghamton, New York 1979.Google Scholar
  100. Saelm-Murdock, M.: African river basin development: socioeconomic issues. In: Problems and Issues in African River Basin Planning, US Agency for International Development NO. PNAAW-222, 1985.Google Scholar
  101. Swinton, S. M.: Drought survival tactics of subsistence farmers in Niger. Human Ecology 16, 123–144 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Talbot, L. M.: Ecological consequences of rangeland development in Masailand, east Africa. In: Farvar, M. T.; Milton, J. P. (eds.), The Careless Technology: Ecology and International Development, The Natural History Press, Garden City, New York 1972.Google Scholar
  103. Theiler, P.: BFW launches major letter-writing campaign on Horn of Africa. Bread for the World Newsletter 3, 1–3 (1991)Google Scholar
  104. Thomas, B. P.; Brokensha, D.: The institutional aspects of river basin development. In: Problems and Issues in African River Basin Planning, US Agency for International Development NO. PNAAW-222, 1985.Google Scholar
  105. Tippets, Abbett, McCarthy, & Stratton (TAMS): Genale Irrigation Rehabilitation Project Feasibility Study, Annex I. Natural and Human Resources, 655 Third Ave, New York, New York 1986.Google Scholar
  106. Torry, W. I.: Social sciences research on famine: a critical evaluation. Human Ecology 12, 227–252 (1984)Google Scholar
  107. Toulmin, C.: Livestock losses and post-drought rehabilatation in sub-Saharan Africa. LPU Working Paper No. 9, International Livestock-Center for Africa, Addis Ababa 1985.Google Scholar
  108. Troyer de C.: Desertification control in the Sudanian and Sahelian zones of West Africa — better management of the renewable resource base. Forest Ecology and Management 16, 233–241 (1986)Google Scholar
  109. Underhill, H. W.: Small-scale irrigation in Africa in the context of rural development. FAO, Rome 1984.Google Scholar
  110. Wallace, T.: The Kano river project: the impact of an irrigation scheme on productivity and welfare. In: Heyer, J.; Roberts, D.; Williams, G. (eds.), Rural Development in Tropical Africa. Macmillan, London 1981.Google Scholar
  111. Walsh, J.: Sahel will suffer even if rains come. Science 224, 467–471 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Western, D.: Water availability and its influence on the structure and dynamics of a savannah large mammal community. East African Wildlife Journal 13, 265–286 (1975)Google Scholar
  113. Winter, R.; Prendergast, J.: An embargo for the people of Sudan. The Washington Post (October 31, 1990)Google Scholar
  114. Zumer-Linder: Constraints to implementation of wood and forage production in an arid, pastoral part of Africa: a case study of a revegation programme in Turkana. Reclamation and Revegetation Research 5, 435–450 (1986)Google Scholar
  115. Salisbury, L.: The role of livestock in the Lower Shabelle. United States Agency for International Development — Somalia Mission, Mogadishu 1988.Google Scholar
  116. Salzmann, P. C.: Shrinking pasture of Rajasthani pastoralists. Nomadic Peoples 20, 49–60 (1986)Google Scholar
  117. Sandford, S.: Management of Pastoral Development in the Third World. John Wiley and Sons, New York 1983.Google Scholar
  118. Sanford, S.: Pastoral strategies and desertification: opportunism and conservation in dry lands. In: Spooner, B.; Mann, H. S. (eds.), Desertification and Development: Dryland Ecology in a Social Perspective, Academic Press, London 1982.Google Scholar
  119. Scott, E. P.: Life and poverty in the Savanna-Sahel zones. In: Scott, E. P. (ed.), Life Before the Drought. pp. 1–27. Allen and Unwin, Boston 1984.Google Scholar
  120. Scudder, T.: River basin projects in Africa. Environment 31, 4–32 (1989)Google Scholar
  121. Sesmou, K.: FAO: an insiders view. The Ecologist 21, 47–56 (1991)Google Scholar
  122. Shepherd, A.: Water, pastoralism and irrigation schemes in eastern Sudan: development of the Butana prairie. Papers in the Administration of Development No. 22, Development Administration Group, University of Birmingham, UK 1985.Google Scholar
  123. Shiva, V.: The failure of the Green Revolution: a case study of the Punjab. The Ecologist 21, 57–60 (1991)Google Scholar
  124. Simoons, J. F.: Northwest Ethiopia: Peoples and Economy. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin 1960.Google Scholar
  125. Sinclair, A. R. E.; Fryxell, J. M.: The Sahel of Africa: ecology of a disaster. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63, 987–994 (1985)Google Scholar
  126. Snow, R.: Famine relief: some unanswered questions from Africa. In: Tietze, W. (ed.), Famine as a Geographical Phenomenon. D. Reidel Publishing C., Dordrecht 1984.Google Scholar
  127. Sokari-George, E.: Planning and the rural regions of Nigeria. GeoJournal 22, 93–98 (1990)Google Scholar
  128. Speth, J. G.: Arid lands in the global picture. In: Whitehead, E. E.; Hutchinson, C. F.; Timmermann, B. N.; Varady, R. G. (eds.), Arid Lands: Today and Tomorrow. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado 1985.Google Scholar
  129. Stiles, D. N.: Desertification and pastoral development in Northern Kenya. Nomadic Peoples 13, 1–14 (1983)Google Scholar
  130. Swift, J.: Sahelian pastoralists: underdevelopment, desertification, and famine. Annual Review of Anthropology 6, 457–478 (1977)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Unruh Jon D. 
    • 1
  1. 1.The Woods Hole Research CenterWoods HoleUSA

Personalised recommendations