Effect of citicoline on visual acuity in amblyopia: preliminary results
•Background: Citicoline has been used to improve consciousness levels in cerebral trauma and as a complement for levodopa in Parkinson's disease. It has also been shown that severe glaucomatous visual field deficits improve for at least 4 months with the use of citicoline. In this paper, preliminary results are presented of an open and a double-blind study on the effect of citicoline in amblyopia.
•Methods: The open study was started in 1991. Fifty patients with amblyopia were treated with citicoline (1000 mg i.m. daily for 15 days). They were selected from an age group beyond the plastic period of the visual system. Occlusion or other types of anti-amblyopic treatment were never used at the same time as citicoline. A double-blind study was conducted on 10 more patients, randomly assigned to a treatment or placebo group and followed for 6 months. A statistical test for repeated measures was performed on all the results.
•Results: A statistically significant improvement in visual acuity was found both for the amblyopic and the sound eye in 46 of the 50 patients (92%). The behaviour was different for normal and amblyopic eyes. The improvement remained stable for at least 4 months. These results have been substantiated by the double-blind study. No side effects were observed.
•Conclusion: Citicoline improves visual acuity, at least temporarily, in amblyopic patients beyond the plastic period of the visual system. Our results suggest that trials of citicoline as a medical treatment of amblyopia are warranted.
KeywordsPlacebo Medical Treatment Placebo Group Visual Acuity Visual Field
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Bietti GB (1957) Sur la possibilité d'un traitment médicamenteux des phénomens suppressifs en vision binoculaire dans le strabisme. Probl Act Ophthalmol 1:391–399Google Scholar
- 2.Bietti GB, Scorsonelli M (1955) Azione dell' O/2 sui fenomeni di soppressione in visione binoculare degli strabici. Riv Med Aeronaut 18:23–34Google Scholar
- 3.Campos EC, Benedetti P, Schiavi C, Scorolli L (1992) Risultati preliminari sull' impiego della citicolina nell' ambliopia. Boll Soc Med Chir Modena 107:357–360Google Scholar
- 4.Domenici L, Berardi N, Carmignoto G, Vantini G, Maffei L (1991) Nerve growth factor (NGF) prevents the amblyopic effect of monocular deprivation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:8811–8815Google Scholar
- 5.Duffy FH, Snodgrass SR, Burchfiel JL, Conway JL (1982) Bicuculline reversal of deprivation amblyopia in the cat. Nature 260:256–257Google Scholar
- 6.Gottlob I, Charlier J, Reinecke RD (1992) Visual acuities and scotomas after one week of levodopa administration in human amblyopia. Invest Ophthalmol Visual Science 33:2722–2728Google Scholar
- 7.Harwerth RS, Smith EL, Duncan GC, Crawford MLJ, Noorden GK von (1986) Effects of enucleation of the fixating eye on strabismic amblyopia in monkeys. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 27:246–254Google Scholar
- 8.Kasamatsu T (1982) Enhancement of neuronal plasticity by activating the norepinephrine system in the brain: a remedy for amblyopia. Hum Neurobiol 1:49–54Google Scholar
- 9.Kasamatsu T, Pettigrew JD (1976) Depletion of brain cathecolamines: failure of ocular dominance shift after monocular occlusion in kittens. Science 194:206–209Google Scholar
- 10.Leguire LE, Rogers GI, Bremer DL, Walson R Hadjiconstaninou-Neff M (1992) Levodopa and childhood amblyopia. J Ped Ophthalmol Strabismus 29:290–298Google Scholar
- 11.Nagel A (1871) Die Behandlung der Amaurosen und Amblyopien mit Strycknin. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 9:264–267Google Scholar
- 12.Noorden GK von (1985) Amblyopia. A multidisciplinary approach (Proctor Lecture). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 26:1704–1716Google Scholar
- 13.Noorden GK von (1990) Binocular vision and ocular motility. Theory and management of strabismus. Mosby, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
- 14.Noorden GK von, Crawford MLJ (1992) The lateral geniculate nucleus in human strabismic amblyopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 33:2729–2732Google Scholar
- 15.Noorden GK von, Crawford MLJ, Levaey RA (1983) The lateral geniculate nucleus in human anisometropic amblyopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 24:788–789Google Scholar
- 16.Pecori Giraldi J, Virno M, Covelli GP, Grechi G, De Gregorio F (1989) Therapeutic value of citicoline in the treatment of glaucoma (computerized and automated perimetric investigation). Int Ophthalmol 13:109–115Google Scholar
- 17.Virno M, Pecori Giraldi J, Grechi G, Covelli GP, De Gregorio F (1989) Valore terapeutico della citicolina nel paziente glaucomatoso (indagine perimetrica computerizzata). Boll Ocul 68 [Suppl 2]:251–258Google Scholar
- 18.Virno M, Pecori Giraldi J, Pellegrino N, Taverniti L, De Gregorio F, Sedran L (1993) Farmaci attivi sulla emodinamica oculare. Boll Ocul 72: [Suppl 2] 1–20Google Scholar