# Genetic programming as a means for programming computers by natural selection

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## Abstract

Many seemingly different problems in machine learning, artificial intelligence, and symbolic processing can be viewed as requiring the discovery of a computer program that produces some desired output for particular inputs. When viewed in this way, the process of solving these problems becomes equivalent to searching a space of possible computer programs for a highly fit individual computer program. The recently developed genetic programming paradigm described herein provides a way to search the space of possible computer programs for a highly fit individual computer program to solve (or approximately solve) a surprising variety of different problems from different fields. In genetic programming, populations of computer programs are genetically bred using the Darwinian principle of survival of the fittest and using a genetic crossover (sexual recombination) operator appropriate for genetically mating computer programs. Genetic programming is illustrated via an example of machine learning of the Boolean 11-multiplexer function and symbolic regression of the econometric exchange equation from noisy empirical data.

Hierarchical automatic function definition enables genetic programming to define potentially useful functions automatically and dynamically during a run, much as a human programmer writing a complex computer program creates subroutines (procedures, functions) to perform groups of steps which must be performed with different instantiations of the dummy variables (formal parameters) in more than one place in the main program. Hierarchical automatic function definition is illustrated via the machine learning of the Boolean 11-parity function.

## Keywords

Genetic programming genetic algorithm crossover hierarchical automatic function definition symbolic regression Boolean 11-multiplexer econometric exchange equation Boolean 11-parity## Preview

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