Advertisement

Space Science Reviews

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 199–242 | Cite as

History of the use of balloons in scientific experiments

  • G. Pfotzer
Article

Keywords

Scientific Experiment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aéronaute, Mai 1874.Google Scholar
  2. Appl. Opt., February 1967, Illustration on the cover ‘Balloon-borne Optics’.Google Scholar
  3. Assmann, R.: 1899, Berliner Wissenschaftliche Luftfahrten, Braunschweig.Google Scholar
  4. Beelitz, P.: 1954, Radiosonden, VEB-Verlag, Technik Berlin, p. 67.Google Scholar
  5. Benade, J. M. and Doan, R. L.: 1935, Phys. Rev. 47, 198.Google Scholar
  6. Blackwell, D. E., Dewhirst, D. W., and Dollfus A.: 1959, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 119, 98.Google Scholar
  7. Bowen, I. S., Millikan, R. A. and Neher, H. V. 1934, Int. Conf. Physics, London, p. 206.Google Scholar
  8. Bowen, I. S., Millikan, R. A. and Neher, H. V.: 1937, Phys. Rev. 52, 80.Google Scholar
  9. Bowen, I. S., Millikan, R. A. and Neher, H. V.: 1938, Phys. Rev. 53, 217 and 856.Google Scholar
  10. Carmichael, H. and Dymond, E. G.: 1939, Proc. Roy. Soc. A171, 321.Google Scholar
  11. Clark, G. W.: 1965, Phys. Rev. Letters 14, 91.Google Scholar
  12. Compton, A. H.: 1934, Proc. Natl. Acad. Amer. 20, 79.Google Scholar
  13. Compton, A. H. and Stephenson, R. J.: 1934, Phys. Rev. 45, 564.Google Scholar
  14. Compton, A. H. and Stephenson, R. J.: 1934, Phys. Rev. 45, 441.Google Scholar
  15. Charakhchyan, A. N. and Charakhchyan, T. N.: 1960, Results of the IGY, Section Cosmic Rays, Issue 3, Moscow.Google Scholar
  16. Cosyns, M.: 1939, Bull. Techn. Ass. Ing. Ec. Polyt. Bruxelles 35, 73.Google Scholar
  17. Critchfleld, C., Ney, E. P. and Oleska, S.: 1952, Phys. Rev. 85, 461.Google Scholar
  18. Danielson, R. E., Gaustod, J. E., Schwarzschild, M., Weaver, H. F., and Woolf, N. J.: 1964, Astron. J. 69, 344.Google Scholar
  19. Dollfus, A. 1959a, L'Astronomie, septembre, 345.Google Scholar
  20. Dollfus, A. 1959b, L'Astronomie, octobre–novembre, 411.Google Scholar
  21. Dollfus, A. 1959c, L'Astronomie, décembre, 467.Google Scholar
  22. Dollfus, A. 1963a, Compt. Rend. 256, 3009.Google Scholar
  23. Dollfus, A. 1963b, Compt. Rend. 256, 3250.Google Scholar
  24. Dollfus, A. 1965, Compt. Rend. 261, 1603.Google Scholar
  25. Dymond, E. G.: 1954, Progress in Cosmic Ray Physics, Vol. II, p. 131, North-Holland Publ. Comp., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  26. Earl, J. A.: 1961, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 125.Google Scholar
  27. Freier, P., Lofgreen, E. J., Ney, E. P., Oppenheimer, F., Bradt, H. L., and Peters, B.: 1948a, Phys. Rev. 74, 213.Google Scholar
  28. Freier, P., Lofgreen, E. J., Ney, E. P., and Oppenheimer, F.: 1948b, Phys. Rev. 74, 1818.Google Scholar
  29. Gockel, A.: 1910, Physik Z. 11, 280.Google Scholar
  30. Gockel, A.: 1911, Physik Z. 12, 595.Google Scholar
  31. Gockel, A.: 1912, Jahrb. Rad. Elektr. 9, 1.Google Scholar
  32. Greinacher, H.: 1935, Z. techn. Physik 16, 165.Google Scholar
  33. Hergesell, H.: 1899, Ill. Aeronaut. Mitt. 3, 109.Google Scholar
  34. Hermite, G.: 1893, Compt. Rend. Acad.Sci., Paris, 116, 766.Google Scholar
  35. Hess, V. F.: 1912, Physik Z. 13, 1084.Google Scholar
  36. Hulsizer, R.: 1949, Phys. Rev. 76, 164.Google Scholar
  37. Jesse, W. P.: 1943,‘The Latitude Effect for the Hard Component of Cosmic Rays and Evidence as to the Nature of the Primary Radiation’, Symposium sôbre Raios Cósmicos, Rio de Janeiro (Agôsto 1941), Imprensa Nacional, p. 113.Google Scholar
  38. Johnson, T. H.: March 1937, J. Franklin Inst., p. 339.Google Scholar
  39. Kolhörster, W.: 1913, Physik Z. 14, 1153.Google Scholar
  40. Korff, S. A.: 1939, Phys. Rev. 56, 210.Google Scholar
  41. Korff, S. A. and Danforth, W. E.: 1939, Phys. Rev. 55, 980.Google Scholar
  42. Korff, S. A. and Danforth, W. E.: 1939, Rev. Mod. Phys. 11, 216.Google Scholar
  43. Lebeau, A.: 1967, Utilisation des ballons pour la recherche scientifique, Colloque International, organisée par le Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), Paris 10–13 juillet, p. 1.Google Scholar
  44. Mémoires de la Société Française de Navigation Aérienne 1874–1875.Google Scholar
  45. Meredith, L. H., Gottlieb, M. B., and Van Allen, J.: 1955, Phys. Rev. 97, 201.Google Scholar
  46. Meyer, P. und Vogt, R.: 1961, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 193.Google Scholar
  47. Millikan, R. A.: 1925, Science 62, 445.Google Scholar
  48. Millikan, R. A.: 1925, Nature 116, 823.Google Scholar
  49. Millikan, R. A. and Bowen, I. S.: 1923, Phys. Rev. 22, 198.Google Scholar
  50. Millikan, R. A., Neher, H. V., and Pichering, W. H.: 1944, Phys. Rev. 66, 295.Google Scholar
  51. MPI Aeronomie, Lindau/Harz, F.R.G. see also Regener et al. (1934).Google Scholar
  52. Neher, V. H.: 1971, J. Geophys. Rev. 76, 1637.Google Scholar
  53. Neher, H. V. and Johnston, A. L.: 1956, Rev. Sci. Instr. 27, 173.Google Scholar
  54. Pfotzer, G.: 1935, Z. techn. Phys. 16, 400.Google Scholar
  55. Pfotzer, G.: 1936, Z. Physik, 102, 23.Google Scholar
  56. Piccard, A.: 1933, Natl. Georgr. Mag. 63, 353.Google Scholar
  57. Piccard, J. F. and Piccard, Jeannette: 1962, Encyclopedia Britannica 2, 1077.Google Scholar
  58. Piccard, A. and Cosyns, M.: 1932, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 195, 604.Google Scholar
  59. Piccard, A., Stachel, E., and Kipfer, P.: 1932, Naturwiss. 20, 592.Google Scholar
  60. Pomerantz, M. A.: 1953, Natl. Geogr. Mag. 103, 99.Google Scholar
  61. Pomerantz, M. A. and Hereford, F. L.: 1949, Phys. Rev. 76, 997.Google Scholar
  62. Prokofiew, M. and Godunov, K. D.: 1934, Nature 133, 918.Google Scholar
  63. Quervain, A. de: 1906, Beitr. z. Physik d. freien Atm. 2, 77.Google Scholar
  64. Raven Industries, Inc., ‘Hot Air Balloon Systems’, File 62-G-1166.Google Scholar
  65. Regener, E.: 1932, Naturwiss. 20, 695.Google Scholar
  66. Regener, E.: 1932, Physik Z. 34, 306.Google Scholar
  67. Regener, E.: 1932, Nature 130, 364.Google Scholar
  68. Regener, E.: 1935, Beitr. z. Phys. d. freien Atm. 22, 249.Google Scholar
  69. Regener, E.: 1939, Schriften der Deutschen Akademie der Luftfahrtforschung, No. 5, p. 5.Google Scholar
  70. Regener, E. and Regener, V. H.: 1934, Phys. Z. 35, 788.Google Scholar
  71. Regener, E. and Pfotzer, G.: 1935, I∘ Congresso Internazionale di Elettro-Radio-Biologia Venezia, 10–15 septembre 1934, Vol. II, p. 1180. Bologna, Licinio Cappelli, Editore.Google Scholar
  72. Regener, E. and Ehmert, A.: 1939, Z. Physik 111, 501.Google Scholar
  73. Reger, J.: 1935, ‘Geschichtliche Entwicklung der Ballonmethoden’ in Handbuch der meteorologischen Instrumente und ihrer Auswertung (ed. by E. Kleinschmidt), Verlag von Julius Springer, p. 434.Google Scholar
  74. Rumbough, L. H. and Locher, G. L.: 1936, Phys. Rev. 49, 855.Google Scholar
  75. Schein, M., Jesse, W. P., and Wollan, E. O.: 1941, Phys. Rev. 59, 615.Google Scholar
  76. Schneider-Carius, K.: 1962, ‘Geschichtlicher Überblick über die Entwicklung der Meteorologie’, in Meteorolog. Taschenb., (ed. by F. Lincke and F. Baur), Neueste Ausgabe, 2nd ed., p. 662.Google Scholar
  77. Schreiber, P.: 1886, Met.Zs. Berlin.Google Scholar
  78. Schopper, E.: 1937, Naturwiss. 25, 557.Google Scholar
  79. Schwarzschild, M. and Schwarzschild, B.: 1959, Sci. Amer. May, 52.Google Scholar
  80. Stevens, A. W.: 1934, Natl. Geogr. Mag. 66, 397.Google Scholar
  81. Stevens, A. W.: 1936a, Natl. Geogr. Mag. 69, 59.Google Scholar
  82. Stevens, A. W.: 1936b, Natl. Geogr. Mag. 69, 693.Google Scholar
  83. Strong, J.: 1965, Sci. Amer. January, 28.Google Scholar
  84. Swann, W. F. G. and Locher, G.: 1935, Phys. Rev. 47, 578.Google Scholar
  85. Swann, W. F. G., Locher, G., and Danforth, W.: 1937, Phys. Rev. 51, 389.Google Scholar
  86. Teisserenc de Bort, L. P.: 1898, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci., Paris 126, 1744.Google Scholar
  87. Vernoff, S.: 1935, Nature 135, 1072.Google Scholar
  88. Wilkins, T. R. and Helens, H. St.: 1935, Phys. Rev. 49, 855.Google Scholar
  89. Winckler, J. R.: 1960, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 1331.Google Scholar
  90. Winckler, J. R.: 1962, J. Geophys. Res. 67, 3243, and references therein.Google Scholar
  91. Winckler, J. R., Peterson, L., Arnoldy, R., and Huffman, R.: 1958, Phys. Rev. 110, 1221.Google Scholar
  92. Winzen, O. C.: 1950, USA Patent No. 2.526.719, October 24.Google Scholar
  93. Winzen, O. C.: 1958, Ten years of “plastic balloons”, VIII Internatl. Astronaut. Congress, Barcelona 1957, Springer-Verlag, Vienna, p. 436.Google Scholar
  94. Winzen, O. C.: 1965, The Balloon a Stepping Stone to Space-Flight, Proc. 6th Int. Sympos. on Space Technology and Science, Tokyo, p. 665.Google Scholar
  95. Winzen, O. C.: 1970, ‘A Proposal for a Decidated Research Fleet’, Paper presented at the XXI IAF Congress, Constance, Germany, October.Google Scholar
  96. Winzen, O. C.: 1971, private communication.Google Scholar
  97. Woolf, N. J.: 1965, Ann. Astrophys. 28, 218.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Pfotzer
    • 1
  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie, Institut für StratosphärenphysikLindauGermany

Personalised recommendations