Public Choice

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 141–146 | Cite as

The inherent disadvantage of the presidential party in midterm congressional elections

  • Randall L. Calvert
  • R. Mark Isaac

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References

  1. Campbell, Angus. (1960). Surge and decline: A study of electoral change. Public Opinion Quarterly 24 (Fall).Google Scholar
  2. Kernell, Samuel. (1977). Presidential popularity and negative voting. American Political Science Review 71 (March): 44–66.Google Scholar
  3. Key, V.O. (1964). Politics, parties and pressure groups. New York: Crowell.Google Scholar
  4. Miller, Warren E. (1955–56). Presidential coattails: A study in political myth and methodology. Public Opinion Quarterly 19 (Winter).Google Scholar
  5. Nie, Norman H., Verba, Sidney, and Petrocik, John R. (1978). The changing American voter. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Schoenberger, Robert A. (1969). Campaign strategy and party loyalty. American Political Science Review 63 (June).Google Scholar
  7. Stokes, Donald E. (1963). Spatial models of party competition. American Political Science Review 57 (June).Google Scholar
  8. Tufte, Edward R. (1975). Determinants of the outcomes of midterm congressional elections. American Political Science Review 69 (September): 812–826.Google Scholar
  9. Tufte, Edward R. (1978). Political control of the economy. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers bv 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Randall L. Calvert
    • 1
  • R. Mark Isaac
    • 2
  1. 1.Washington UniversitySt. Louis
  2. 2.University of ArizonaTucsonUSA

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