, Volume 14, Issue 3–4, pp 281–332 | Cite as

Hydrobiological studies on the Tugela river system

Part I. The main Tugela river
  • W. D. Oliff


A chemical and biological survey of the Tugela river, Natal is described. Some relationships between physical and chemical conditions in the river and the geology and climate of the basin are indicated. The flora and fauna of the main river is described, and the zonation of species in the river, and seasonal variations in the communities at various stations in the zones are delineated.

Some relationships between the physical and chemical conditions in the basin, and the distribution and seasonal variations of the biological communities are indicated. Comparisons are made with other rivers. It is concluded that the Tugela river as a type in Southern Africa, falls intermediate between temperate and sub-tropical conditions.


Seasonal Variation River System Chemical Condition Main River Biological Community 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abdin, G., - 1948 - Physical and Chemical Investigations relating to algal growth in the River Nile; Bull. Inst. Egypte, 29: 19–44.Google Scholar
  2. Acocks, J. P. H., - 1953 - Veld Types of South Africa; Union of South Africa, Department of Agriculture. Division of Botany, Botanical Survey Memoir, No. 28.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, K. R., - 1951 - The Horokiwi Stream — A Study of a Trout Population; New Zeal. Mar. Dep. Fish. Bull., No. 10.Google Scholar
  4. American Public Health Association: Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Sewage, 10th edition, 1955.Google Scholar
  5. Barnard, K. H., - 1950 - Descriptive Catalogue of South African Decapod Crustacea; Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 38: 1–658.Google Scholar
  6. Berg, K., - 1948 - Biological Studies on the River Sussaa; Folia Limnol. Scand., No. 4.Google Scholar
  7. Brinck, Per. South African Wild Life. Results of the Lund University Expedition 1950–51. Gyrinidae. A monograph of the Whirligig Beetles of Southern Africa; Uppsala 1955.Google Scholar
  8. Bond, G. W., - 1946 - A Geochemical Survey of the Underground Water Supplies of the Union of South Africa; Union of S.A., Dept. of Mines, Geol. Surv. Mem., No. 41.Google Scholar
  9. Butcher, R. W., - 1933 - Studies on the Ecology of Rivers: 1. On the distribution of macrophytic vegetation in the rivers of Britain; J. Ecol. 21: 58–91.Google Scholar
  10. Butcher, R. W., Longwell, J. & Pentlow, F. T. K., - 1937 - Survey of the River Tees: The non-tidal reaches; Tech. Papers Water Pollution Res., London, 6: 1–189.Google Scholar
  11. Caplan, S. R., Jackson, B. C. M., Webb, M. M. & Middleton, E. A., - 1952 -River Surveys in the Tugela River Basin. Unplished Reports of the Water Treatment Research Division of S.A.C.S.I.R., Nat. Chem. Res. Lab.Google Scholar
  12. Carpenter, K. E. Life in Inland Waters, Macmillan, New York, 1928.Google Scholar
  13. Cholnoky, B. J., - 1956 - Neue und seltene Diatomeen aus Afrika II. Diatomeen aus dem Tugela — Gebiete in Natal; Öst. bot. Z., 103, 1: 53–97.Google Scholar
  14. Cholnoky, B. J., - 1957 - Neue und seltene Diatomeen aus Afrika III. Diatomeen aus dem Tugela — Flussystem, hauptsächlich den Drakensbergen in Natal; Öst. bot. Z., 104, 1–2: 25–99.Google Scholar
  15. du Toit, A. L., - The Geology of South Africa, dedited by S. H. Haughton, Oliver & Boyd, London, 1954.Google Scholar
  16. Fisher, R. A., Corbet, A. S. & Williams, C. B., - 1943 - The Relation Between the Numbers of Species and the Numbers of Individuals in a Random Sample of an Animal Population; J. Anim. Ecol. 12: 42–58.Google Scholar
  17. Gaufin, A. R., Harris, E. K. & Walter, H. J., - 1956 - A Statistical Evaluation of Stream Bottom Sampling Data Obtained from Three Standard Samplers; Ecology 37, 4: 643–648.Google Scholar
  18. Grundy, P. M., - 1951 - The Expected Frequencies in a Sample of an Animal Population in which the abundances of Species are Log-normally distributed: Part I.; Biometrika 38, P. 3 and 4, 427–434.Google Scholar
  19. Hellige - Directions for Hellige aqua Tester, Hellige Inc., New York, 1947.Google Scholar
  20. Harrison, A. D. & Elsworth, J. F., - 1958 - Hydrobiological Studies on the Great Berg river, Western Cape Province, Part 1, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Afr. 35 (3) 125–226.Google Scholar
  21. Harrison, A. D., - 1958 - Hydrobiological studies on the Great Berg River. Part 2. Trans Roy. Soc. S. Afr. 35 (3), 227–276.Google Scholar
  22. Hesse, R. - Ecological Animal Geography, edited by W. C. Allen and K. P. Schmidt, Wiley & Son, New York, 1937.Google Scholar
  23. Hurst, H. E. - The Nile, a general account of the river and the utilization of its water, London, Constable, 1952.Google Scholar
  24. Jones, J. R. Ericksen, - 1941 - The fauna of the River Dovey, West Wales; J. Anim. Ecol., 10: 12–24.Google Scholar
  25. Jones, J. R. Ericksen, - 1948 - The fauna of four streams in the ‘Black Mountain’ district of South Wales; J. Anim. Ecol. 17: 51–65.Google Scholar
  26. Jones, J. R. Ericksen, - 1949 - An Ecological Study of the River Rheidal, North Cardiganshire, Wales; J. Anim. Ecol. 18: 67–87.Google Scholar
  27. Leonard, J. W., - 1939 - Comments on the adequacy of accepted stream bottom sampling techniques; Trans. Fourth N. Afr. Wildlife Conf., 288–295.Google Scholar
  28. Macan, T. T., - 1958 - Methods of Sampling the bottom fauna in stony streams; Int. Ass. Theor. Appl. Limn. Comm., No. 8.Google Scholar
  29. Mottley, C. M. C., Rayner, H. J. & Rainwater, J. H., - 1939 - The determination of the food grade of streams; Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc., 68: 336–343.Google Scholar
  30. Natal Regional Survey - Archaeology and Natural Resources of Natal, vol. 1, Oxford University Press, 1951.Google Scholar
  31. Needham, P. R., - 1934 - Quantitative study on stream bottom foods; Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 64: 238–247.Google Scholar
  32. Needham, P. R. & Usinger, R. L., - 1956 - Variability in the Macrofauna of a single riffle in Prosser Creek, California, as indicated by the Surber sampler; Hilgardia, 24, 14: 383–409.Google Scholar
  33. Odum, H. T., - 1957 - Trophic Structure and Productivity of Silver Springs, Florida; Ecol. Monogr., 27, 1: 55–111.Google Scholar
  34. Percival, E. & Whitehead, H., - 1929 - A Quantitative Study of the Fauna of some types of stream bed; J. Ecol. 17: 282–314.Google Scholar
  35. Preston, F. W., - 1948 - The commonness and rarity of species; Ecology, 29, 3: 254–283.Google Scholar
  36. South African Bureau of Standards: - Specification for Water for Domestic Supplies; S. A. Bureau of Standards, Pub. 241, Govt. Printer, Pretoria, 1951.Google Scholar
  37. Stander, G. J., Barnard, J. J., White, E. G., Krige, P. R. & De Beer, R. J. -1952 - River Surveys in the Witwatersrand Area: Part IV. Quantitative studies: The Klip River and its Tributaries; Internal Report of Water Treatment Research Division of C.S.I.R. N.C.R.L.Google Scholar
  38. Streeter & Frost, - 1924 - A Study of the Pollution and natural Purification of the Ohio River; Part I. U.S. Public Health Service, Public Health Bull. No. 11.Google Scholar
  39. Surber, E. W., - 1937 - Rainbow trout and bottom fauna production in one mile of stream; Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc., 66: 193–202.Google Scholar
  40. Williams, C. B., - 1939 - An analysis of four years captures of insects in a light trap, Part I; Trans. R. ent. Soc., Lond., 89: 79–131.Google Scholar
  41. Williams, C. B., - 1944 - Some applications of the logarithmic series and the index of diversity to ecological problems; J. Ecol., 32: 1–44.Google Scholar
  42. Williams, C. B., - 1947 - The logarithmic series and its application to biological problems; J. Ecol., 34: 253–272.Google Scholar
  43. Williams, C. B., - 1953 - The relative abundance of different species in a wild animal population; J. Anim. Ecol., 22: 14–31.Google Scholar
  44. Van Someren, V. D., - The Biology of Trout in Kenya Colony, Govt. Printer, Nairobi, 1952.Google Scholar
  45. W.B. 20 - Climate of South Africa, Part 2, Rainfall Statistics, W.B. 20, Govt. Printer, Pretoria, 1955.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Uitgeverij Dr W. Junk 1959-1960

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. D. Oliff

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations