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Instructional Science

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 1–24 | Cite as

The expert learner: Strategic, self-regulated, and reflective

  • Peggy A. Ertmer
  • Timothy J. Newby
Article

Abstract

Reflection on the process of learning is believed to be an essential ingredient in the development of expert learners. By employing reflective thinking skills to evaluate the results of one's own learning efforts, awareness of effective learning strategies can be increased and ways to use these strategies in other learning situations can be understood. This article describes how expert learners use the knowledge they have gained of themselves as learners, of task requirements, and of specific strategy use to deliberately select, control, and monitor strategies needed to achieve desired learning goals. We present a model of expert learning which illustrates how learners' metacognitive knowledge of cognitive, motivational, and environmental strategies is translated into regulatory control of the learning process through ongoing reflective thinking. Finally, we discuss the implications that the concept of expert learning has for instructional practices.

Keywords

Learning Process Regulatory Control Learning Strategy Specific Strategy Instructional Practice 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peggy A. Ertmer
    • 1
  • Timothy J. Newby
    • 2
  1. 1.Purdue UniversityUSA
  2. 2.Purdue UniversityUSA

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