Solar Physics

, Volume 103, Issue 1, pp 141–151 | Cite as

A theory for the solar type-I radio continuum

  • Donat G. Wentzel


The type-I radio continuum may arise from the combination of two electrostatic waves, both directed nearly normal to the magnetic field. One wave, near the upper-hybrid frequency, is generated by gyroresonance with superthermal electrons and comes into equilibrium with these electrons. The other wave, at the lower-hybrid frequency, is generated by the loss-cone instability of trapped superthermal protons in those wave directions for which the lower-hybrid frequency is an exact multiple of the proton gyrofrequency. The brightness temperature of the continuum indicates both the energy of the superthermal electrons and the existance of at least a small number of superthermal protons.


Magnetic Field Brightness Temperature Wave Direction Electrostatic Wave Radio Continuum 
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Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donat G. Wentzel
    • 1
  1. 1.Astronomy Program, University of MarylandU.S.A.

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