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Solar Physics

, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 173–207 | Cite as

The flares of August 1972

  • Harold Zirin
  • Katsuo Tanaka
Article

Abstract

We present the analysis of observations of the August flares at Big Bear and Tel Aviv, involving monochromatic movies, magnetograms and spectra. In each flare the observations fit a model of particle acceleration in the chromosphere with emission produced by impact and by heating by the energetic electrons and protons. The region showed inverted polarity and high gradients from birth, and flares appear due to strong magnetic shears and gradients across the neutral line produced by sunspot motions. Post flare loops show a strong change from sheared, force-free fields parallel to potential-field-like loops, perpendicular to the neutral line above the surface.

We detected fast (5 s duration) small (1′') flashes in λ3835 at the footpoints of flux loops in the August 2 impulsive flare at 18∶38 UT, which may be explained by dumping of > 50 keV electrons accelerated in individual flux loops. The flashes show excellent time and intensity agreement with > 45 keV X-rays. In the less impulsive 20∶00 UT flare a less impulsive wave of emission in λ3835 moved with the separating footpoints. The thick target model of X-ray production gives a consistent model for X-ray, λ3835 and microwave emission in the 18:38 UT event.

Spectra of the August 7 flare show emission 12 Å FWHM in flare kernels, but only 1 to 2 Å wide in the rest of the flare. The kernels thus produce most of the Hα emission. The total emission in Hα in the August 4 and August 7 flares was about 2 × 1030 erg. We belive this dependable value more accurate than previous larger estimates for great flares. The time dependence of total Hα emission agrees with radio and X-ray data much better than area measurements which depend on the weaker halo.

Absorption line spectra show a large (6 km/s-1) photospheric velocity discontinuity across the neutral line, corresponding to sheared flow across that line.

Keywords

Flare Neutral Line Magnetic Shear Impulsive Wave Flare Loop 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harold Zirin
    • 1
  • Katsuo Tanaka
    • 1
  1. 1.Big Bear Solar Observatory, Hale Observatories, Carnegie Institution of Washington, California Institute of TechnologyU.S.A.

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