Solar Physics

, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 361–380 | Cite as

Direction-finding measurements of type III radio bursts out of the ecliptic plane

  • Mark M. Baumback
  • William S. Kurth
  • Donald A. Gurnett


Direction-finding measurements with the plasma wave experiments on the HAWKEYE 1 and IMP 8 satellites are used to find the source locations of type III solar radio bursts in heliocentric latitude and longitude in a frequency range from 31.1 kHz to 500 kHz. IMP 8 has its spin axis perpendicular to the ecliptic plane; hence, by analyzing the spin modulation of the received signals the location of the type III burst projected into the ecliptic plane can be found. HAWKEYE 1 has its spin axis nearly parallel to the ecliptic plane; hence, the location of the source out of the ecliptic plane may also be determined. Using an empirical model for the emission frequency as a function of radial distance from the sun the three-dimensional trajectory of the type III radio source can be determined from direction-finding measurements at different frequencies. Since the electrons which produce these radio emissions follow the magnetic field lines from the Sun these measurements provide information on the three-dimensional structure of the magnetic field in the solar wind. The source locations projected into the ecliptic plane follow an Archimedean spiral. Perpendicular to the ecliptic plane the source locations usually follow a constant heliocentric latitude. When the best fit magnetic field line through the source locations is extrapolated back to the Sun this field line usually originates within a few degrees from the solar flare which produced the radio burst. With direction-finding measurements of this type it is also possible to determine the source size from the modulation factor of the received signals. For a type III event on June 8, 1974, the half angle source size was measured to be ∼60° at 500 kHz and ∼40° at 56.2 kHz as viewed from the Sun.


Flare Solar Wind Source Location Solar Flare Radio Emission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark M. Baumback
    • 1
  • William S. Kurth
    • 1
  • Donald A. Gurnett
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physics and AstronomyThe University of IowaIowa CityU.S.A.

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