Solar Physics

, Volume 70, Issue 2, pp 237–249 | Cite as

Coronal holes, solar wind streams, and geomagnetic disturbances during 1978 and 1979

  • N. R. SheeleyJr.
  • J. W. Harvey


We have extended our long-term study of coronal holes, solar wind streams, and geomagnetic disturbances through the rising phase of sunspot cycle 21 into the era of sunspot maximum. During 1978 and 1979, coronal holes reflected the influence of differential rotation, and existed within a slowly-evolving large-scale pattern despite the relatively high level of sunspot activity. The long-lived 28.5-day pattern is not produced by a rigidly-rotating quasi-stationary structure on the Sun, but seems to be produced by a non-stationary migratory process associated with solar differential rotation. The association between coronal holes and solar wind speed enhancements at Earth continues to depend on the latitude of the holes (relative to the heliographic latitude of Earth), but even the best associations since 1976 have speeds of only 500–600 km s-1 rather than the values of 600–700 km s-1 that usually occurred during the declining phase of sunspot cycle 20.


Wind Speed Solar Wind Coronal Hole Migratory Process Differential Rotation 
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Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Co 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. R. SheeleyJr.
    • 1
  • J. W. Harvey
    • 2
  1. 1.E. O. Hulburt Center for Space Research, U.S. Naval Research LaboratoryWashington, D.C.U.S.A.
  2. 2.Kitt Peak National ObservatoryTucsonU.S.A.

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