Advertisement

Solar Physics

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 347–365 | Cite as

The Harvard-Smithsonian reference atmosphere

  • O. Gingerich
  • R. W. Noyes
  • W. Kalkofen
  • Y. Cuny
Article

Abstract

We present a model of the solar atmosphere in the optical depth range from τ5000 = 10−8 to 25. It combines an improved model of the photosphere that incorporates recent EUV observations with a new model of the quiet lower chromosphere. The latter is based on OSO 4 observations of the Lyman continuum, on infrared observations, and on eclipse electron densities.

Our model differs from the Bilderberg Continuum Atmosphere (BCA) in the low chromosphere (τ5000 < 10−4), where deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium in hydrogen and carbon have been taken into account. It also differs in the transition region between the chromosphere and the photosphere (10−4 < τ5000 < 10−2), where the temperature is lower than in the BCA, and in the convective region (τ5000 ≳ 2), where the temperature is higher than in the BCA.

Keywords

Hydrogen Atmosphere Transition Region Thermodynamic Equilibrium Optical Depth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Athay, R. G.: 1969, Solar Phys. 9, 51.Google Scholar
  2. Bonnet, R. M.: 1968, Ann. Astrophys. 31, 597.Google Scholar
  3. Bötticher, W.: 1958, Z. Physik 150, 336.Google Scholar
  4. Carbon, D. F. and Gingerich, O.: 1969, in Theory and Observations of Normal Stellar Atmospheres (ed. by O. Gingerich), Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, Cambridge, p. 377.Google Scholar
  5. Carbon, D. F., Gingerich, O., and Kurucz, R.: 1968, Solar Phys. 3, 55.Google Scholar
  6. Conneely, M. J., Smith, K., and Lipsky, L.: 1970, J. Phys. B 3, 493.Google Scholar
  7. Cuny, Y.: 1969, in Theory and Observations of Normal Stellar Atmospheres (ed. by O. Gingerich), Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, Cambridge, p. 173.Google Scholar
  8. Cuny, Y.: 1971, Solar Phys. 16, 293.Google Scholar
  9. Doyle, R. O.: 1968, Astrophys. J. 153, 987.Google Scholar
  10. Eddy, J. A., Léna, P. J., and MacQueen, R. M.: 1969a, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 1, 275.Google Scholar
  11. Eddy, J. A., Léna, P. J., and MacQueen, R. M.: 1969b, Solar Phys. 10, 330.Google Scholar
  12. Elste, G.: 1968, Solar Phys. 3, 106.Google Scholar
  13. Garz, T., Holweger, H., Kock, M., and Richter, J.: 1969, Astron. Astrophys. 2, 446.Google Scholar
  14. Gay, J.: 1970, Astron. Astrophys. 6, 327.Google Scholar
  15. Gingerich, O.: 1970, in L. Houziaux and H. E. Butler (eds.), ‘Ultraviolet Stellar Spectra and Related Ground-Based Observations’, IAU Symp. 36, 140.Google Scholar
  16. Gingerich, O. and de Jager, C.: 1968, Solar Phys. 3, 5.Google Scholar
  17. Goldberg, L., Noyes, R. W., Parkinson, W. H., Reeves, E. M., and Withbroe, G. L.: 1968, Science 162, 95.Google Scholar
  18. Henze, Jr., W.: 1969, Solar Phys. 9, 65.Google Scholar
  19. Holweger, H.: 1970, Astron. Astrophys. 4, 11.Google Scholar
  20. Houtgast, J.: 1968, Solar Phys. 3, 47.Google Scholar
  21. Koutchmy, S. and Peyturaux, R.: 1968, Compt. Rend. 267, 905.Google Scholar
  22. Kozlov, M. G. and Startsev, G. P.: 1969, Opt. Spectrosc. 27, 383.Google Scholar
  23. Labs, D. and Neckel, H.: 1968, Z. Astrophys. 69, 1.Google Scholar
  24. Labs, D. and Neckel, H.: 1970, Solar Phys. 15, 79.Google Scholar
  25. Lambert, D. L. and Warner, B.: 1968, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. London 138, 181.Google Scholar
  26. Léna, P. J.: 1970, Astron. Astrophys. 4, 207.Google Scholar
  27. Linsky, J. and Avrett, E. H.: 1970, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 82, 169.Google Scholar
  28. Mankin, W. G.: 1969, Ph.D. Thesis, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.Google Scholar
  29. Mankin, W. G. and Strong, J.: 1969, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 1, 200.Google Scholar
  30. McGuire, E. J.: 1968, Phys. Rev. 175, 20.Google Scholar
  31. Noyes, R. W. and Kalkofen, W.: 1970, Solar Phys. 15, 120.Google Scholar
  32. Parkinson, W. H. and Reeves, E. M.: 1969, Solar Phys. 10, 342.Google Scholar
  33. Parkinson, W. H. and Reeves, E. M.: 1970, Personal communication.Google Scholar
  34. Peach, G.: 1967, Mem. Roy. Astron. Soc. 71, 29.Google Scholar
  35. Saiedy, F.: 1960, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. London 121, 483.Google Scholar
  36. Sando, K.: 1969, Personal communication (see Table III).Google Scholar
  37. Sando, K., Doyle, R. O., and Dalgarno, A.: 1969, Astrophys. J. 157, L143.Google Scholar
  38. Tousey, R.: 1963, Space Sci. Rev. 2, 3.Google Scholar
  39. Widing, K. G., Purcell, J. D., and Sandlin, G. D.: 1970, Solar Phys. 12, 52.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. Gingerich
    • 1
  • R. W. Noyes
    • 1
  • W. Kalkofen
    • 1
  • Y. Cuny
    • 2
  1. 1.Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and Harvard College ObservatoryCambridgeU.S.A.
  2. 2.Observatoire de Paris, Section d'AstrophysiqueMeudonFrance

Personalised recommendations