Advertisement

A glass box approach to adaptive hypermedia

  • Kristina Höök
  • Jussi Karlgren
  • Annika Wærn
  • Nils Dahlbäck
  • Carl Gustaf Jansson
  • Klas Karlgren
  • Benoît Lemaire
Article

Abstract

Utilising adaptive interface techniques in the design of systems introduces certain risks. An adaptive interface is not static, but will actively adapt to the perceived needs of the user. Unless carefully designed, these changes may lead to an unpredictable, obscure and uncontrollable interface. Therefore the design of adaptive interfaces must ensure that users can inspect the adaptivity mechanisms, and control their results. One way to do this is to rely on the user's understanding of the application and the domain, and relate the adaptivity mechanisms to domain-specific concepts. We present an example of an adaptive hypertext help system POP, which is being built according to these principles, and discuss the design considerations and empirical findings that lead to this design.

Key words

adaptive hypermedia plan inference multimodality user modelling 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. van Beek, P. and R. Cohen: 1991, ‘Resolving Plan Ambiguity for Cooperative Response Generation’. Proc. IJCAI-91, Sydney, Australia, Morgan Kaufmann.Google Scholar
  2. Berry, D.C. and D.E. Broadbent: 1986, ‘Expert Systems and the Man Machine Interface: Part 2: The User Interface’. Expert systems: The International Journal of Knowledge Engineering 4.Google Scholar
  3. Biermann, Alan W., Brace W. Ballard and Anne H. Sigmon: 1983, ‘An Experimental Study of Natural Language Programming’. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 18, 71–87.Google Scholar
  4. Bladh, Malin and Kristina Höök: 1995, ‘Satisfying User Needs through a Combination of Interface Design Techniques’. Proceedings of INTERACT'95, Liliehammer, Norway, 1995.Google Scholar
  5. Bos, Edwin, Carla Huls and Wim Claassen: 1994, ‘EDWARD: Full Integration of Language and Action in a Multimodal User Interface’. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 40, 473–495.Google Scholar
  6. du Boulay, Ben, Tim O'Shea and J. Monk: 1981, ‘The Black Box inside the Glass Box: Presenting Computing Concepts to Novices’. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 14.Google Scholar
  7. Bretan, Ivan: 1995, ‘Natural Language in Model World Interfaces’. Licentiate Thesis, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Stockholm: The Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University.Google Scholar
  8. Bretan, Ivan, Niklas Frost and Jussi Karlgren: 1995, ‘Using Surface Syntax in Interactive Interfaces’. Paper presented to the 10thNordic Conference of Computational Linguistics. Helsinki: University of Helsinki.Google Scholar
  9. Breuker, Joost (ed.): 1990, EUROHELP: Developing Intelligent Help Systems. EC, Copenhagen, Report on the P280 ESPRIT Project EUROHELP.Google Scholar
  10. Capindale, Ruth A. and Robert G. Crawford: 1990, ‘Using a Natural Language Interface with Casual Users’. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 32, 341–362.Google Scholar
  11. Chi, Michelene T. H., James D. Slotta and Nicholas de Leeuw: 1994, ‘From Things to Processes: A Theory of Conceptual Change for Learning Science Concepts’. Learning and Instruction - The Journal of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction 4(1), 27–43.Google Scholar
  12. Cohen, P: 1992, ‘The Role of Natural Language in a Multimodal Interface’. Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST), Monterey, 1992, pp. 143–150.Google Scholar
  13. Höök, Kristina: 1995, ‘Adaptation to the User's Task’, SICS Research Report R95:08, Sweden.Google Scholar
  14. Kaplan, Craig, Justine Fenwick and James Chen: 1993, ‘Adaptive Hypertext Navigation Based On User Goals and Context’. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction 3, 193–220.Google Scholar
  15. Karlgren, Jussi, Ivan Bretan, Niklas Frost and Lars Jonsson: 1995, ‘Interaction Models, Reference, and Interactivity for Speech Interfaces to Virtual Environments’. Proceedings of Second Eurographics Workshop on Virtual Environments - Realism and Real Time, Monte Carlo. Darmstadt: Fraunhofer IGD.Google Scholar
  16. Karlgren, Jussi, Kristina Höök, Ann Lantz, Jacob Palme and Daniel Pargman: 1994: ‘The Glass Box User Model for Filtering’. 4th International Conference on User Modeling, Hyannis, ACM.Google Scholar
  17. Kass, Robert and Tim Finin: 1988, ‘Modeling the User in Natural Language Systems’. Computational Linguistics 14(3), Special Issue on User Modeling, eds. A. Kobsa and W. Wahlster.Google Scholar
  18. Kautz, Henry A: 1990, ‘A Circumscriptive Theory of Plan Recognition’. In: P. R. Cohen, J. Morgan and M. E. Pollack (eds.): Intentions in Communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 105–133.Google Scholar
  19. Kay, Judy: 1994, ‘Lies, Damned Lies and Stereotypes’. 4th International Conference on User Modeling, Hyannis: ACM.Google Scholar
  20. Kobsa, A., D. Müller and A. Nill: 1994, ‘KN-AHS: An Adaptive Hypertext Client of the User Modeling System BGP-MS’. Fourth International Conference on UM, Hyannis, MA, ACM.Google Scholar
  21. Kühme, T., U. Malinowski and J. D. Foley: 1993, ‘Adaptive Prompting’. Technical Report GIT-GVU-93-05, Georgia Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  22. Lemaire, Benoit: 1995, ‘Object-Oriented Explanation Planning’. In: W. Hoeppner and H. Horacek (eds.): Principles of Natural Language Generation — Papers from a Dagstuhl Seminar, Report SI-12 of the University of Duisburg, Germany.Google Scholar
  23. Lemaire, Benoit, Catriona McDermid and Annika Wærn: 1994, ‘Adaptive Help by Navigation and Explanation’. SICS technical report T94:05.Google Scholar
  24. Maes, Parttie: 1994, ‘Agents That Reduce Work and Information Overload’. Communications of the ACM 37, 7.Google Scholar
  25. McDermid, Catriona and Anna-Lena Ereback: 1994. Initial application evaluation and help requirements for SDP. PUSH working paper WP94:01/01.Google Scholar
  26. Meyer, B: 1994, ‘Adaptive Performance Support: User Acceptance of a Self-Adapting System’. 4th International Conference on User Modeling, Hyannis, ACM.Google Scholar
  27. Mittal, V. O. and J. D. Moore: 1995, ‘Dynamic Generation of Follow Up Question Menus: Facilitating Natural Language Dialogues’. SIGCHI '95 (Denver Colorado, May 7–11, 1995) Human Factors in Computing System Proceedings 1995. New York: ACM SIGCHI, pp. 90–97.Google Scholar
  28. Moore, J D and W. R. Swartout: 1989, ‘A Reactive Approach to Explanation’. 11th Int. Conf. on AI, pp. 1504–1510.Google Scholar
  29. Oppermann, Reinhard 1994, ‘Adaptively supported adaptability’. Int. J. Human-Computer Studies 40, 455–472.Google Scholar
  30. Paris, Cecile: 1988, ‘Tailoring Object Descriptions to a User's Level of Expertise’. Computational Linguistics 14(3), 64–78.Google Scholar
  31. Pollack, M. E., J. Hirschberg and B. L. Webber: 1982, ‘User Participation in the reasoning processes of expert systems’. In: Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Pittsburgh, Penn.Google Scholar
  32. Raskutti, B. and I. Zukerman: 1994, ‘Query and response generation during information-seeking interactions’. 4th International Conference on User Modeling, Hyannis, ACM.Google Scholar
  33. Roth, E. M. and Woods, D. D: 1989, ‘Cognitive Task Analysis: An Approach to Knowledge Acquisition for Intelligent System Design’. In: G. Guida and C. Tasso (eds.): Topics in Expert System Design, Elsevier Science Publ. B.V. (North-Holland).Google Scholar
  34. Self, J: 1988, ‘Bypassing the Intractable Problem of Student Modelling’. Proc. of the Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems ITS-88, pp. 107–123.Google Scholar
  35. Shneiderman, Ben: 1983, ‘Direct Manipulation: A Step Beyond Programming Languages.’ IEEE Computer 16(8), 57–69.Google Scholar
  36. SICStus Prolog User's Manual (Release 3#0). Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Box 1263, S-164 28 Kista, Sweden. ISBN 91-630-3648-7.Google Scholar
  37. Julita Vassileva: 1994, ‘A Practical Architecture for User Modeling in a Hypermedia-Based Information System’. Fourth International Conference on UM, Hyannis, MA, ACM.Google Scholar
  38. Wærn, Annika: 1994, ‘Cooperative Enrichment and Reactive Plan Inference - Applying Plan Inference Outside Natural Language Dialogue’. Presented at the UM-94 workshop on applied planning and plan recognition, available from SICS.Google Scholar
  39. Wærn, Annika and Ola Stenborg: 1995, ‘Recognizing the Plan of a Replanning User’. To be presented at the IJCAI workshop on Plan Recognition, Montreal, Canada.Google Scholar
  40. Woods, David D: 1993, ‘The price of flexibility’. In: W. D. Gray, W. H. Hefley and D. Murray (eds.): Proc. of the 1993 Workshop on Intelligent User Interfaces. ACM Press, pp. 19–25.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristina Höök
    • 1
  • Jussi Karlgren
    • 1
  • Annika Wærn
    • 1
  • Nils Dahlbäck
    • 2
  • Carl Gustaf Jansson
    • 3
  • Klas Karlgren
    • 3
  • Benoît Lemaire
    • 4
  1. 1.Swedish Institute of Computer ScienceKistaSweden
  2. 2.Department of Computer and Information ScienceLinköping UniversityLinköpingSweden
  3. 3.Department of Computer and Systems SciencesStockholm University and The Royal Institute of TechnologyKistaSweden
  4. 4.Department of Education SciencesUniversity of Grenoble IIGrenoble, CédexFrance

Personalised recommendations