Fluctuations in All-India summer monsoon rainfall during 1871–1978
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Analysis of the All-India summer monsoon (June to September) rainfall for the period 1871 to 1978 has been made in order to understand the interannual and long-term variability of the monsoon. On a country level, India receives 85.31 cm mean monsoon rainfall which is 78%; of the annual rainfall. The coefficient of variation of monsoon rainfall at the country level is 9.5%;. The highest and lowest rainfall country level were observed in the years 1961 and 1877 respectively, the range being 41 cm about 48%; of the long term average. There are 13/9 years of large-scale deficit/excess in the 108-yr period. There is a continuous rise in the 10-yr mean rainfall from 1899 to 1953. There are four major climatic rainfall periods in the series. Correlogram and spectrum analysis showed significant 14-yr and 2.8-yr cycles respectively in 108-yr series; however detailed examination indicated that these cycles have developed during the last 30 yr of the data period.
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