Your place or mine? Learning from long-term use of Audio-Video communication

  • Paul Dourish
  • Annette Adler
  • Victoria Bellotti
  • Austin Henderson
Article

Abstract

Workstations and personal computers are increasingly being delivered with the ability to handle multimedia data; more and more of us are linked by high-speed digital networks. With multimedia communication environments becoming more commonplace, what have we learned from earlier experiences with prototype media environments? This paper reports on some of our experiences as developers, researchers and users of flexible, networked, multimedia computer environments, or “media spaces”. It focusses on the lessons we can learn from extended, long-term use of media spaces, with connections that last not hours or days, but months or years. We take as our starting point a set of assumptions which differ from traditional analytical perspectives. In particular, we begin from the position that that real-world baseline is not always an appropriate point of comparison for new media technologies; that a set of complex and intricate communicative behaviours arise over time; and that media spaces connect not only individuals, but the wider social groups of which they form part. We outline a framework based on four perspectives — individual, interactional, communal and societal — from which to view the behaviour of individuals and groups linked by multimedia environments. On the basis of our long-term findings, we argue for a view of media spaces which, first, focuses on a wider interpretation of media space interaction than the traditional view of person-to-person connections, and, second, emphasises emergent communicative practices, rather than looking for the transfer of face-to-face behaviours.

Key words

desktop videoconferencing emergent behaviours long-term use media space videomediated interaction 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adler, A. and A. Henderson (1994): A Room of Our Own: Experiences from a Direct Office-Share. In Proc. ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI'94, eds. Adelson, Dumais and Olson. New York: ACM Press, pp. 138–144.Google Scholar
  2. Bellotti, V and A. Sellen (1993): Designing for Privacy in Ubiquitous Computing Environments. In Proc. European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work ECSCW'93, eds. de Michaelis, Simone and Schmidt. Amsterdam: Kluwer, pp. 77–92.Google Scholar
  3. Blomberg, J. (1988): Social Aspects of Operability: Ethnography of Photocopiers. AAAS Symposium on Cognitive Ethnography of Industrial Society, Boston, Mass.Google Scholar
  4. Bly, S., S. Harrison and S. Irwin (1993): Media Spaces: Bringing People Together in a Video, Audio and Computing Environment. Communications of the ACM, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 28–47.Google Scholar
  5. Bowers, J. and T. Rodden (1993): Exploding the Interface: Experiences of a CSCW Network. In Proc. of InterCHI 93, eds. Ashlund et al. New York: ACM Press, pp. 255–262.Google Scholar
  6. Buxton, W. and T. Moran (1990): EuroPARCs Integrated Interactive Intermedia Facility (IIIF): Early Experiences. Proc. IFIP Conference on Multi-User Interfaces and Applications, Herakleion, Crete.Google Scholar
  7. Casner, S. and S. Deering (1992): First IETF Internet Audiocast. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communications Review, vol. 22, no. 37.Google Scholar
  8. Cool, C., R. Fish, R. Kraut and C. Lowery (1992): Iterative Design of Video Communication Systems. In Proc. ACM Conference Computer-Supported Cooperative Work CSCW'92, eds. Turner and Kraut. New York: ACM Press, pp. 25–32.Google Scholar
  9. Curtis, P. and D. Nichols (1993): MUDs Grow Up: Social Virtual Reality in the Real World. Proc. Third International Conference on Cyberspace.Google Scholar
  10. Dourish, P. (1991): Godard: A Flexible Architecture for A/V Services in a Media Space. EuroPARC Technical Report EPC-91-134, Rank Xerox EuroPARC, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  11. Dourish, P. (1993): Culture and Control in a Media Space. In Proc. European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work ECSCW'93, eds. de Michaelis, Simone and Schmidt. Amsterdam: Kluwer, pp. 125–173.Google Scholar
  12. Dourish, P. and S. Bly (1992): Portholes: Supporting Awareness in Distributed Work Groups. In Proc. ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI'92, eds. Bauersfeld, Bennett and Lynch. New York: ACM Press, pp. 541–548.Google Scholar
  13. Dykstra-Eriksson, E., C. Rudman, C. Marshall, R. Hertz, K. Mithal and J. Schmidt (1995): Supporting Adaptation to Multimedia Desktop Conferencing. Proc. International Conference on Human Factors in Telecommunications, Melbourne, Australia, March.Google Scholar
  14. Eriksson, H. (1994): MBONE: The Multicast Backbone. Communications of the ACM, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 54–60.Google Scholar
  15. Fish, R., R. Kraut and B. Chalfonte (1990): The Video Window System in Informal Communication. In: Proc. ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Work CSCW'90. New York: ACM Press, pp. 1–11.Google Scholar
  16. Fish, R., R. Kraut, R. Root and R. Rice (1993): Video as a Technology for Informal Communication. Communications of the ACM, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 48–61.Google Scholar
  17. Gaver, W. (1992): The Affordances of Media Spaces for Collaboration. In Proc. ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work CSCW'92, eds. Turner and Kraut. New York: ACM Press, pp. 17–24.Google Scholar
  18. Gaver, W., T. Moran, A. MacLean, L. Lovstrand, P. Dourish, K. Carter and B. Buxton (1992): Realising a Video Environment: EuroPARC's RAVE System. In Proc. ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI'92, eds. Bauersfeld, Bennett and Lynch. New York: ACM Press, pp. 27–35.Google Scholar
  19. Gaver, W., A. Sellen, C. Heath and P. Luff (1993): One Is Not Enough: Multiple Views in a Media Space. In Proc. InterCHI'93, eds. Ashlund et al. New York: ACM Press, pp. 335–341.Google Scholar
  20. Gaver, W., G. Smets and K. Overbeeke (1995): A Virtual Window on Media Space. In Proc. ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI'95, eds. Katz, Mack and Marks. New York: ACM Press, pp. 257–264.Google Scholar
  21. Grudin, J. (1990): Interface. In Proc. ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work CSCW'90. New York: ACM Press, pp. 269–278.Google Scholar
  22. Harper, R. and K. Carter (1994): Keeping People Apart: A Research Note. Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 199–207.Google Scholar
  23. Harrison, S. (1992): Making a Place in Media Space. Technical Report SSL-92–42, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, Palo Alto, California.Google Scholar
  24. Heath, C. and P. Luff (1991): Disembodied Conduct: Communication through Video in a Multi-Media Environment. In Proc. ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI'91, eds. Robertson, Olson and Olson. New York: ACM Press, pp. 99–103.Google Scholar
  25. Heath, C. and P. Luff (1992a): Media Space and Communicative Asymmetries: Preliminary Observations of Video-Mediated Interaction. Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 315–346.Google Scholar
  26. Heath C. and P. Luff (1992b): Collaboration and Control: Crisis Management and Multimedia Technology in London Underground Line Control Rooms. Computer Supported Cooperative Work, vol. 1, nos. 1–2, pp. 69–95.Google Scholar
  27. Hollan, J. and S. Stornetta (1992): Beyond Being There. In Proc. ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI'92, eds. Bauersfeld, Bennett and Lynch. New York: ACM Press, pp. 119–126.Google Scholar
  28. Ishii, H., M. Kobayashi and J. Grudin (1992): Integration of Inter-Personal Space and Shared Workspace: ClearBoard Design and Experiments. In Proc. ACM Conference on ComputerSupported Cooperative Work CSCW'92, eds. Turner and Kraut. New York: ACM Press, pp. 33–42.Google Scholar
  29. Louie, G., A. Sellen and M. Mantei (1991): Making Contact in a Multi-Media Environment, Unpublished Report, Computer Science Research Institute, University of Toronto.Google Scholar
  30. Mantei, M., R. Baecker, A. Sellen, W. Buxton, T. Milligan and B. Wellman (1991): Experiences in the Use of a Media Space. In Proc. ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI'91, eds. Robertson, Olson and Olson. New York: ACM Press, pp. 203–208.Google Scholar
  31. Nardi, B., H. Schwartz, A. Kuchinsky, R. Leichner, S. Whittaker and R. Sclabassi (1993): Turning Away from Talking Heads: The User of Video-as-Data in Neurosurgery. In Proc. InterCHI'93, eds. Ashlund et al. New York: ACM Press, pp. 327–334.Google Scholar
  32. O'Conaill, B., S. Whittaker and S. Wilburt (1993): Conversations over Video Conferences: An Evaluation of the Spoken Aspects of Video-Mediated Communication. Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 389–428.Google Scholar
  33. Olson, M. and S. Bly (1991): The Portland Experience: A Report on a Distributed Research Group. Intl. Journal of Man-Machine Studies, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 211–228.Google Scholar
  34. Pagani, D. and W. Mackay (1993): Bringing Media Spaces into the Real World. In Proc. Third European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work ECSCW'93, eds. de Michaelis, Simone and Schmidt. Amsterdam: Kluwer, pp. 341–356.Google Scholar
  35. Root, R. (1988): Design of a Multi-Media Vehicle for Social Browsing. In Proc. ACM Conference on Computer Support for Cooperative Work CSCW '88. New York: ACM Press, pp. 25–38.Google Scholar
  36. Sellen, A. (1992): Speech Patterns in Video-Mediated Conversations. In Proc. ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI'92, eds. Bauersfeld, Bennett and Lynch. New York: ACM Press, pp. 49–59.Google Scholar
  37. Spears, R. and M. Lea (1993): Social Influence and the Influence of the ‘Social’ in Computer-Mediated Communication. In Contexts of Computer-Mediated Communication, ed. M. Lea. Harvester Wheatsheaf, pp. 30–65.Google Scholar
  38. Stults, R. (1989): The Experimental Use of Video to Support Design Activity. Xerox PARC Technical Report SSL-89-19, Palo Alto, California.Google Scholar
  39. Tang, J. and E. Isaacs (1993): Why Do Users Like Video? Studies of Multimedia-Supported Collaboration. Computer Supported Cooperative Work, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 163–196.Google Scholar
  40. Tyson, P. (1992): The Desk as a Social Institution. EuroPARC Technical Report EPC-92–130, Rank Xerox EuroPARC, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  41. Yamaashi, K., Y. Kawamata and M. Tani (1995): User-Centered Video: Transmitting Video Images Based on the User's Interest. In Proc. ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI'95, eds. Katz, Mack and Marks. New York: ACM Press, pp. 325–330.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Dourish
    • 1
  • Annette Adler
    • 2
  • Victoria Bellotti
    • 3
  • Austin Henderson
    • 3
  1. 1.Rank Xerox Research Centre (EuroPARC)CambridgeU.K.
  2. 2.Systems Architecture Group, Xerox Corp.Palo AltoU.S.A.
  3. 3.Advanced Technology GroupApple ComputerCupertinoU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations