Genetica

, Volume 66, Issue 2, pp 93–114 | Cite as

Chromosomal diversity and evolution in the ground beetle genus Bembidion and related taxa (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechitae)

  • D. R. Maddison
Article

Abstract

Chromosome numbers and sex chromosome systems of 154 previously unstudied Bembidion species are described. The genus is nearly uniform: males of 176 of 205 species are 2n=22+XY. Karyotypes are presented for 30 species. There is some variation among species in size of Y and size of autosomes. Within most species autosomes are subequal in size, and metacentric or submetacentric. Subterminal secondary constrictions and B chromosomes are reported from several species.

The supertribe Trechitae (Zolini + Trechini + Pogonini + Bembidiini) is hypothesized to be primitively male 2n=22+X or 24+X, and the ancestral Bembidion stock 2n=22+XY. Conclusions are based on the most parsimonious hypothesis of ancestral state given an inferred phylogeny of the group, rather than the widespread-is-primitive arguments used previously. Evolution within Bembidion away from the presumably-primitive 2n=22+XY is discussed. Six lineages have lost Y chromosomes; seven have undergone changes in autosome number. It is not known why such changes are so scarce, nor what particular rearrangements led to the observed diversity. Nonetheless, the cytogenetic data can be used to infer a monophyletic origin of groups possessing derived chromosome numbers or sex chromosomes, and to help resolve species limits.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andersen, J., 1969. Habitat choice and life history of Bembidiini (Col., Carabidae) on river banks in central and northern Norway. Norsk ent. Tidsskr. 17: 17–65.Google Scholar
  2. Bengtsson, B. O., 1980. Rates of karyotype evolution in placental mammals Hereditas 92: 37–47.Google Scholar
  3. Erwin, T. L., in press. The taxon pulse: a general pattern of lineage radiation and extinction among carabid beetles. In: Ball, G. E. (ed.), Taxonomy, phylogeny, and zoogeography of beetles and ants. A volume dedicated to the memory of Philip Jackson Darlington, Jr. 1904–1983. The Hague, Dr. W. Junk Publishers.Google Scholar
  4. Estabrook, G. F., 1977. Does common equal primitive? Syst. Bot. 2: 36–42.Google Scholar
  5. Farris, J. S., 1970. Methods for computing Wagner trees. Syst. Zool. 19: 83–92.Google Scholar
  6. Farris, J. S., 1982. Outgroups and parsimony. Syst. Zool. 31: 328–334.Google Scholar
  7. Farris, J. S. & Kluge, A. G., 1979. A botanical clique. Syst. Zool. 28: 400–411.Google Scholar
  8. Frank, J. H., 1971. Carabidae (Coleoptera) of an arable field in central Alberta. Quaest. ent. 7: 237–252.Google Scholar
  9. Jeannel, R., 1942. Coléoptères carabiques. Faune de France 39. Paris, Lechevalier.Google Scholar
  10. Jeannel, R., 1942. Coléoptères carabiques. Faune de France 40, Paris, Lechevalier.Google Scholar
  11. Kryzhanovskij, O. L., 1976. An attempt at a revised classification of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera). Ent. Rev. 1: 56–64.Google Scholar
  12. Lande, R., 1979. Effective deme sizes during long-term evolution estimated from rates of chromosomal rearrangement. Evolution 33: 234–251.Google Scholar
  13. Lauder, G. V., 1981. Form and function: structural analysis in evolutionary morphology. Paleobiology 7: 430–442.Google Scholar
  14. Lindroth, C. H., 1963. The ground-beetles (Carabidae, excl. Cicindelinae) of Canada and Alaska. Part 3. Opusc. ent. Suppl. XXXV, pp. 201–408.Google Scholar
  15. Lindroth, C. H., 1976. Genus Bembidion Latreille (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in New Zealand: a revision, N. Z. J. Zool. 3: 161–198.Google Scholar
  16. Maddison, D. R., MS. The meiotic systems of ground beetles, with special reference to male achiasmate meiosis in Bembidion (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Trachypachidae).Google Scholar
  17. Maddison, W. P., Donoghue, M. J. & Maddison, D. R., 1984. Outgroup analysis and parsimony. Syst. Zool. 33: 83–103.Google Scholar
  18. Petitpierre, E., 1984. Variability in the number of chromosomes of beetle genera particularly those of chrysomelids. XVII International Congress of Entomology, Hamburg. Abstract volume, p. 391.Google Scholar
  19. Rothfels, K. H., 1979. Cytotaxonomy of black flies (Simuliidae). Ann. Rev. Ent. 24: 507–539.Google Scholar
  20. Rożek, M., 1981. Karyological studies of Bembidiinae (Coleoptera, Carabidae). I. Chromosome number and sex-determining system in six species of the genus Bembidion Latr. Folia Biol. (Kraków) 29(2): 119–122.Google Scholar
  21. Rożek, M. & Warchałowska-Sliwa, E., 1980. Karyological studies on Trechinae (Coleoptera, Carabidae). I. Chromosomes of Trechus pilisensis Csiki and Trechus pulchellus Putz. Folia Biol. (Kraków) 28: 119–122.Google Scholar
  22. Rożek, M. & Warchałowska-Sliwa, E., 1982. Karyological studies on Trechinae (Coleoptera, Carabidae). II. Karyotypes of Trechus pilisensis Csiki, Trechus pulchellus Putz. and Trechus pulpani Res. Folia Biol. (Kraków) 30: 59–67.Google Scholar
  23. Serrano, J., 1981a. Chromosome numbers and karyotypic evolution of Caraboidea. Genetica 55: 51–60.Google Scholar
  24. Serrano, J., 1981b. A chromosome study of Spanish Bembidiidae and other Caraboidea (Coleoptera, Adephaga). Genetica 57: 119–129.Google Scholar
  25. Serrano, J., 1981c. Male achiasmate meiosis in Caraboidea. Genetica 57: 131–137.Google Scholar
  26. Serrano, J., 1984. New chromosome numbers of Spanish Caraboidea (Coleoptera, Adephaga). Genét. ibér. 34 (1982): 63–82.Google Scholar
  27. Smith, S. G., 1960. Chromosome numbers of Coleoptera. II. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 2: 66–88.Google Scholar
  28. Smith, S. G., 1966. Natural hybridization in the Coccinellid genus Chilocorus. Chromosoma 18: 380–406.Google Scholar
  29. Smith, S. G. & Virkki, N., 1978. Coleoptera. Animal Cytogenetics, Volume 3: Insecta 5. Berlin, Stuttgart, Borntraeger.Google Scholar
  30. Stevens, P. F., 1980. Evolutionary polarity of character states. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11: 333–358.Google Scholar
  31. White, M. J. D., 1973. Animal cytology and evolution, third edition. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  32. White, M. J. D., 1978. Modes of speciation. San Francisco, W. H. Freeman and Company.Google Scholar
  33. Serrano, J. & Yadav, J. S., 1984. Chromosome numbers and sex-determining mechanisms in adephagan coleoptera. Coleopts. Bull. 38: 335–357.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr W. Junk Publishers 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. R. Maddison
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations