Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 159–172 | Cite as

Eucalyptus planting as a response to farm management problems faced by ‘on-site’ and ‘off-site’ farmers

  • N. C. Saxena


The success of the ‘green revolution’ in the fertile and agriculturally surplus plains of western U.P. in north India led to labour shortages, and increased opportunities for off-farm investments by landowners, requiring their time and energies away from farming. These changes impelled landowners to adopt strategies which saved family labour and supervision time in cultivation. Many ‘off-site’ farmers, and such ‘on-site’ farmers who had a high ratio of owned land to male members in the family, resorted to tree farming, mainly eucalyptus. On the other hand, farmers in eastern U.P., with small holdings, subsistence orientation and cheap labour, showed little enthusiasm for planting eucalyptus. Based on field investigation in six villages, this paper argues that woodlot planting of eucalyptus emerged as an attractive option for landowners facing management and labour problems in western U.P., as tree farming allowed saving in family labour time and permitted greater flexibility in the timing of operations. About 60% of the total trees planted were by this category of management-constrained farmers.

Key words

farm forestry farm management eucalyptus labour supervision 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Basant, R (1987) Agricultural technology and employment in India: a survey of recent research. Economic and Political Weekly 22(32) 1348–1364Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bhalla, S (1983) Tenancy today. Economic and Political Weekly 18: 835–853 (Annual Number May)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bliss, CJ and Stern, N (1982) Palanpur: The Economy of an Indian Village. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Byres, TJ (1981) The new technology, class formation and class action in the Indian countryside. Journal of Peasant Studies 8(4): 405–454Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chambers, R, Saxena, NC and Shah, T (1989) To the Hands of the Poor: Water and Trees. Oxford and IBH New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dewees, P (1988) The Impact of Rural Capital and Labour Availability on Smallholder Tree Growing in Kenya. Oxford Forestry Institute, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hyman, EL (1983) Pulpwood tree farming in the Philippines from the viewpoint of the smallholder: an ex-post evaluation of the PICOP project. Agricultural Administration 14: 23–49Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    IIPO (1988) Survival Rate of Trees: 1983–84 to 1987–88. Indian Institute of Public Opinion, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jose, AV (1988) Agricultural wages in India. Economic and Political Weekly 23(26) A46-A58Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lipton M (1985) Land assets and rural poverty. World Bank staff working papers 744, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    NCAER (1987) Haryana wood balance study. National Council of Applied Economic Research, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    ODA (1989) Evaluation of the social forestry project Karnataka. ODA, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Saxena, NC (1989) Degraded lands in India: experiences and prospects. RWEDP FAO, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Saxena, NC (1990) Farm forestry in north-west India. Ford Foundation, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Saxena, NC (1990) Trees on farm lands in north-west India: field data from six villages. ODI Social Forestry Network 11d, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Saxena, NC (1991) Marketing constraints for eucalyptus from farm forestry in India. Agroforestry Systems 13(1) 73–85Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Saxena, NC (1991) Crop losses due to eucalyptus on bunds and its cost-benefit implications. Agroforestry Systems 16(3) 231–245Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Saxena NC (1991) Village tree planting in north-west India. Commonw For Rev 70(3)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Srivastava, R (1989) Tenancy contracts during transition. Journal of Peasant Studies 16(3) 339–395Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Srivastava, R (1989) Interlinked modes of exploitation in Indian agriculture during transition: a case study. Journal of Peasant Studies 16(4) 493–522Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    USAID (1988) Draft national social forestry project-mid term review. USAID, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    World Bank (1988) Uttar Pradesh social forestry project: project completion report. World Bank, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    World Bank (1989) Uttar Pradesh social forestry project: project completion report. World Bank, WashingtonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. C. Saxena
    • 1
  1. 1.Oxford Forestry InstituteOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations