Climatic Change

, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp 79–92 | Cite as

Variations in sunspot structure and climate

  • Douglas V. Hoyt


Sunspot structure is measured by taking the ratio of the area of the umbra to that of the penumbra. The time dependence of this umbral/penumbral ratio is remarkably similar to the record of the Northern Hemisphere surface temperature anomalies. On a year-to-year basis the correlation is 0.57, which is significant at better than the 0.01% level. It is postulated that a change in the umbral/penumbral ratio is proportional to a change in the solar luminosity and that long-term variations in the luminosity lead to corresponding changes in the climate of the Earth.


Surface Temperature Time Dependence Northern Hemisphere Temperature Anomaly Hemisphere Surface 
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Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Douglas V. Hoyt
    • 1
  1. 1.National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationBoulderUSA

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