Natural Language & Linguistic Theory

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 347–374 | Cite as

Anaphoric, pronominal and referential INFL

  • Isabelle Haïk
Article

In Kikuyu, Hausa, Moore and Palauan, INFL alternates between a ‘realis’ form and an ‘irrealis’ form. It is argued that this alternation is explicable in terms of the binding theory. In Kikuyu, Hausa and Moore, INFL bears the features [±anaphor] and [±pronominal], which are utilized by this theory in accounting for the complementary distribution of its two forms. Variation among these three languages is attributed to the ability or inability of intermediate traces of wh-operators to act as binders. In Palauan, however, INFL is an r-expression. A paththeoretic account of INFL in this language is provided in which the realis form is treated as a proper name and the irrealis form as a variable.

I wish to thank Laurie Tuller, Réjean Canac-Marquis, Esther Torrego, Mireille Tremblay and four thorough anonymous reviewers for NLLT for their useful comments. Thanks also to Frederick Newmeyer for his very helpful contribution to the revision of this article, both in form and in content, and to Carol Georgopoulos for kindly providing me with crucial facts about Palauan.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aoun, J.: 1985, A Grammar of Anaphora, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  2. Aoun, J. and R. Clark: 1985, ‘On Non-Overt Operators’, University of Southern California Working Papers SCOPIL 10, 17–36.Google Scholar
  3. Borer, H.: 1986, ‘I-Subjects’, Linauistic Inquiry 17, 375–416.Google Scholar
  4. Campana, M.: 1988, ‘Mood and Binding in Palauan’, McGill Working Papers in Linguistics 5, 163–190.Google Scholar
  5. Chomsky, N.: 1981, Lectures on Government and Binding, Foris, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  6. Chomsky, N.: 1982, Some Concepts and Consequences of the Theory of Government and Binding, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  7. Chomsky, N.: 1986, Barriers, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  8. Chung, S.: 1982, ‘Unbounded Dependencies in Chamorro Grammar’, Linguistic Inquiry 13, 39–78.Google Scholar
  9. Chung, S. and C. Georgopoulos: 1988, ‘Agreement with Gaps in Chamorro and Palauan’, in M. Barlow and C. A. Ferguson (eds.), Agreement in Natural Language: Approaches, Theories, Descriptions, Stanford University Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University, pp 251–267.Google Scholar
  10. Cinque, G.: 1984, ‘A'-bound pros vs. variables’, unpublished, Università di Venezia.Google Scholar
  11. Clements, G. N.: 1984, ‘Binding Domains in Kikuyu’, Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 14, 37–56.Google Scholar
  12. Contreras, H.: 1985, ‘A Note on Parasitic Gaps’, Linguistic Inquiry 15, 698–701.Google Scholar
  13. Finer, D.: 1984, The Formal Grammar of Switch-Reference, unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.Google Scholar
  14. Finer, D.: 1985, ‘The Syntax of Switch-Reference’, Linguistic Inquiry 16, 35–55.Google Scholar
  15. Georgopoulos, C.: 1985a, ‘Variables in Palauan Syntax’, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 3, 59–94.Google Scholar
  16. --: 1985b, The Syntax of Variable Binding in Palauan, doctoral dissertation, University of California at San Diego; revised version entitled Syntactic Variables: Resumptive Pronouns and A'-Binding in Palauan, in press, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  17. Haïk, I.: 1984, ‘Indirect Binding’, Linguistic Inquiry 15, 185–223.Google Scholar
  18. Haïk, I., H. Koopman and D. Sportiche: 1985, ‘INFL en mooré et le liage dans le système A'’, in Rapport de recherches du groupe de linguistique africaniste, année 1985–1986, Montréal.Google Scholar
  19. Heim, I.: 1982, The Semantics of Definite and Indefinite Noun Phrases, unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.Google Scholar
  20. Jakubovicz, C.: 1985, ‘Do Binding Principles Apply to INFL?’, Proceedings of NELS 15, 188–206.Google Scholar
  21. Johnson, K.: 1984, ‘Some Notes on Subjunctive Clauses and Binding in Icelandic’, unpublished, MIT.Google Scholar
  22. Kayne, R. S.: 1981, ‘Unambiguous Paths’, in R. May and J. Koster (eds.), Levels of Syntactic Representation, Foris, Dordrecht. Reprinted in Kayne (1984), pp. 129–164.Google Scholar
  23. Kayne, R. S.: 1983, ‘Connectedness’, Linguistic Inquiry 14, 223–249. Reprinted in Kayne (1984), pp. 165–192.Google Scholar
  24. Kayne, R. S.: 1984, Connectedness and Binary Branching, Foris, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  25. Kayne, R. S. and J.-Y. Pollock: 1978, ‘Stylistic Inversion, Successive Cyclicity and Move NP in French’, Linguistic Inquiry 9, 595–621.Google Scholar
  26. Koopman, H.: 1984, The Syntax of Verbs, Foris, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  27. Lasnik, H. and M. Saito: 1984, ‘On the Nature of Proper Government’, Linguistic Inquiry 15, 235–289.Google Scholar
  28. Lasnik, H. and T. Stowell: 1987, ‘Weakest Crossover’, unpublished, University of Connecticut and UCLA.Google Scholar
  29. Lewis, D.: 1975, ‘Adverbs of Quantification’, in E. Keenan (ed.), Formal Semantics of Natural Language, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 3–15.Google Scholar
  30. Nikiema, N.: 1980, Ed gom moore: la grammaire du mooré en 50 leçons, Université de Ouagadougou.Google Scholar
  31. Rizzi, L.: 1978, ‘Violations of the Wh-Island Constraint in Italian and the Subjacency Condition’, Montreal Working Papers in Linguistics 11; reprinted in Rizzi (1982), pp. 49–76.Google Scholar
  32. Rizzi, L.: 1982, Issues in Italian Syntax, Foris, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  33. Rouveret, A. and J.-R. Vergnaud: 1980, ‘Specifying Reference to the Subject: French Causatives and Conditions on Representations’, Linguistic Inquiry 11, 97–202.Google Scholar
  34. Schneider-Zioga, P.: 1988, ‘Spec-Head Agreement in KiNande’, paper delivered at the 2nd Niger-Congo Syntax and Semantics Workshop, MIT, Cambridge. To appear in the Proceedings.Google Scholar
  35. Schuh, R.: 1985, ‘Tense/Aspect/Mood (TAM) System’, unpublished, UCLA.Google Scholar
  36. Sportiche, D.: 1986, ‘Zibun’, Linguistic Inquiry 17, 369–374.Google Scholar
  37. Sproat, R.: 1985, ‘Welsh Syntax and VSO Structure’, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 3, 173–216.Google Scholar
  38. Travis, L.: 1984, Parameters and Effects of Word Order Variation, unpublished doctoral dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  39. Tuller, L.: 1985, ‘% MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr% 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq-Jc9% vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0-yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr-x% fr-xb9adbaqaaeaacaGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaa0aaaeaaie% aacaWFubaaaaaa!36D8!\[\overline T \]ense Features and Operators in Hausa’, in Rapport de recherches du groupe de linguistique africaniste, année 1985–1986, Montréal, pp. 493–516.Google Scholar
  40. --: 1986, Bijective Relations in Universal Grammar and the Syntax of Hausa, unpublished doctoral dissertation, UCLA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isabelle Haïk
    • 1
  1. 1.UQAM, dép. de linguistiqueMontréalCanada

Personalised recommendations