Theory and Decision

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 225–257 | Cite as

Representing the negotiation process with a rule-based formalism

  • Gregory E. Kersten
  • Wojtek Michalowski
  • Stan Matwin
  • Stan Szpakowicz


The objective of this paper is to introduce a flexible approach to the structuring of negotiations. The process of negotiations with its intricacies is discussed, and drawbacks of quantitative methods are analyzed. The decomposition of the negotiation process into a certain hierarchical structure is presented. This structure is represented with ‘and/or’ trees used for knowledge representation in artificial intelligence. The definitions of flexibility and reactions to the opponent's moves are introduced with the help of a rule-based formalism. The implications of these definitions for the analysis of the negotiation process are presented. The approach is illustrated with a set of hypothetical examples.


decision support negotiation negotiation support systems expert systems rule-based formalism knowledge representation logic, meta-rules 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregory E. Kersten
    • 1
  • Wojtek Michalowski
    • 1
  • Stan Matwin
    • 2
  • Stan Szpakowicz
    • 2
  1. 1.Decision Analysis Laboratory School of Business, Carleton UniversityOttawaCanada
  2. 2.Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada

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