Advertisement

Landscape Ecology

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 133–142 | Cite as

Some general principles of landscape and regional ecology

  • Richard T. T. Forman
Article

Abstract

A dozen general principles of landscape and regional ecology are delineated to stimulate their evaluation, refinement, and usage. Brief background material and a few references provide entrées into the subjects. The principles are presented in four groups: landscapes and regions; patches and corridors; mosaics; and applications. Most appear useful in solving a wide range of environmental and societal land-use issues.

Keywords

aggregate-with-outliers grain size indispensable pattern land mosaic landscape change landscape ecology metapopulation dynamics mosaic sequence patch-corridor-matrix patch shape principle regional ecology 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ambuel, B. and Temple, S.A. 1983. Area dependent changes in the bird communities and vegetation of southern Wisconsin forests. Ecology 64: 1057–1068.Google Scholar
  2. Angelstam, P. 1992. Conservation of communities - the importance of edges, surroundings and landscape mosaic structure. In Ecological Principles of Nature Conservation: Applications in Temperate and Boreal Environments, pp. 9–70. Edited by L. Hansson. Elsevier, London.Google Scholar
  3. Baudry, J. and Burel, F. 1984. Landscape project: remembrement: landscape consolidation in France. Landscape Planning 11: 235–241.Google Scholar
  4. Brandle, J.R., Hintz, D.L. and Sturrock, J.W., eds. 1988. Windbreak technology. Elsevier, Amsterdam. (Reprinted from Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, vols. 22–23).Google Scholar
  5. Burke, I.C., Schimel, D.S., Yonder, C.M., Parton, W.J., Joyce, L.A. and Lauenroth, W.K. 1990. Regional modeling of grassland biogeochemistry using GIS. Landscape Ecology 4: 45–54.Google Scholar
  6. den Boer, P.J. 1981. On the survival of populations in a heterogeneous and variable environment. Oecologia 50: 39–53.Google Scholar
  7. Fahrig, L. and Merriam, G. 1985. Habitat patch connectivity and population survival. Ecology 66: 1762–1768.Google Scholar
  8. Foin, T.C., Jr. 1976. Ecological systems and the environment. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.Google Scholar
  9. Forman, R.T.T. 1979. Pine barrens: ecosystem and landscape. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Forman, R.T.T. 1987. The ethics of isolation, the spread of disturbance, and landscape ecology. In Landscape Heterogeneity and Disturbance, pp. 213–229. Edited by M.G. Turner. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Forman, R.T.T. 1995. Land mosaics: the ecology of landscapes and regions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. In press.Google Scholar
  12. Forman, R.T.T. and Collinge, S.K. 1995. The ‘spatial solution’ to conserving biodiversity in landscapes and regions. In Conservation of Faunal Diversity in Forested Landscapes. In press. Edited by R.M. DeGraaf and R.I. Miller. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  13. Forman, R.T.T. and Godron, M. 1986. Landscape ecology. John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Forman, R.T.T. and Moore, P.N. 1992. Theoretical foundations for understanding boundaries in landscape mosaics. In Landscape Boundaries: Consequences for Biotic Diversity and Ecological Flows, pp. 236–258. Edited by A.J. Hansen and F. di Castri. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Franklin, J.F. and Forman, R.T.T. 1987. Creating landscape patterns by forest cutting: ecological consequences and principles. Landscape Ecology 1: 5–18.Google Scholar
  16. Fritz, R.S. 1979. Consequences of insular population structure: distribution and extinction of spruce grouse populations. Oecologia 42: 57–65.Google Scholar
  17. Froment, A. and Wildmann, B. 1987. Landscape ecology and rural restructuring in Belgium. Landscape and Urban Planning 14: 415–426.Google Scholar
  18. Greig-Smith, P. 1983. Quantitative plant ecology. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  19. Gutzwiller, K.J. and Anderson, S.H. 1987. Multiscale associations between cavity-nesting birds and features of Wyoming streamside woodlands. Condor 89: 534–548.Google Scholar
  20. Gutzwiller, K.J. and Anderson, S.H. 1992. Interception of moving organisms: influences of patch shape, size, and orientaion on community structure. Landscape Ecology 6: 293–303.Google Scholar
  21. Haber, W. 1990. Using landscape ecology in planning and management. In Changing Landscapes: An Ecological Perspective, pp. 217–232. Edited by I.S. Zonneveld and R.T.T. Forman. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Hansen, A.J. and di Castri, F., eds. 1992. Landscape boundaries: consequences for biotic diversity and ecological flows. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Hansen, A.J., Urban, D.L. and Marks, B. 1992. Avian community dynamics: the interplay of landscape trajectories and species life histories. In Landscape Boundaries: Consequences for Biotic Diversity and Ecological Flows, pp. 170–195. Edited by A.J. Hansen and F. di Castri. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Hanski, I. 1991. Single species metapopulation dynamics: concepts, models and observations. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 42: 17–38.Google Scholar
  25. Harms, B. and Opdam, P. 1990. Woods as habitat patches for birds: application in landscape planning in The Netherlands. In Changing Landscapes: An Ecological Perspective, pp. 73–97. Edited by I.S. Zonneveld and R.T.T. Forman. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Harris, L.D. 1984. The fragmented forest: island biogeography theory and the preservation of biotic diversity. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  27. Harris, L.D. and Kangas, P. 1979. Designing future landscapes from principles of form and function. In Our National Landscape: Applied Techniques for Analysis and Management of the Visual Resource. pp. 725–729. Edited by G.H. Pilsner and R.C. Smardon. General Technical Report PSW-34, U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  28. Isard, W. 1975. Introduction to regional science. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  29. Karr, J.R. 1982. Population variability and extinction in the avifauna of a tropical land bridge island. Ecology 63: 1975–1978.Google Scholar
  30. Koppen, W. 1931. Grundriss der Klimakunde. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.Google Scholar
  31. Kozova, M., Smitalova, K. and Vizyova, A. 1986. Use of measures of network connectivity in the evaluation of ecological landscape stability. Ekologia (Czechoslovakia) 5: 187–202.Google Scholar
  32. Knaapen, J.P., Scheffer, M. and Harms, B. 1992. Estimating habitat isolation in landscape planning. Landscape and Urban Planning 23: 1–16.Google Scholar
  33. Liu, J., Cubbage, F.W. and Pulliam, H.R. 1994. Ecological and economic effects of forest landscape structure and rotation length: simulation studies using ECOLECON. Ecological Economics 10: 249–263.Google Scholar
  34. Lovejoy, T.E., Rankin, J.M., Bierregaard, R.O., Jr., Brown, K.S., Jr., Emmons, L.H. and van der Voort, M. 1984. Ecosystem decay of Amazon forest remnants. In Extinctions. pp. 295–325. Edited by M.H. Niteki. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  35. Martinsson, B., Hansson, L. and Angelstam, P. 1993. Small mammal dynamics in adjacent landscapes with varying predator communities. Annales Zoologici Fennici 30: 31–42.Google Scholar
  36. McHarg, I.L. 1969. Design with Nature. Doubleday, Garden City, New York.Google Scholar
  37. Merriam, H.G. 1988. Landscape dynamics in farmland. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 3: 16–20.Google Scholar
  38. Mueller-Dombois, D. and Ellenberg, H. 1974. Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  39. Norton, D.A. and Lord, J.M. 1990. On the use of ‘grain size’ in ecology. Functional Ecology 4: 719.Google Scholar
  40. Noss, R. 1993. Wildlife corridors. In Ecology of Greenways: Design and Function of Linear Conservation Areas. pp. 43–68. Edited by D.S. Smith and P.C. Hellmund. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.Google Scholar
  41. Odum, E.P. and Turner, M.G. 1990. The Georgia landscape: a changing resource. In Changing Landscapes: An Ecological Perspective. pp. 137–164. Edited by I.S. Zonneveld and R.T.T. Forman. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  42. O'Neill, R.V., Krummel, J.R., Gardner, R.H., Sugihara, G., Jackson, B., DeAngelis, D.L., Milne, B.T., Turner, M.G., Zygmunt, B., Christensen, S.W., Dale, V.H. and Graham, R.L. 1988. Indices of landscape pattern. Landscape Ecology 1: 153–162.Google Scholar
  43. Opdam, P. 1991. Metapopulation theory and habitat fragmentation: a review of holarctic breeding bird studies. Landscape Ecology 5: 93–106.Google Scholar
  44. Peterken, G.F. and Allison, H. 1989. Woods, trees and hedges: a review of changes in the British countryside. Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough, UK.Google Scholar
  45. Pickett, S.T.A. and White, P.S., eds. 1985. The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  46. Richter, H. 1984. Geographische landschaftsprognose. Geographische Berichte 111: 91–102.Google Scholar
  47. Risser, P.G. 1987. Landscape ecology: state-of-the-art. In Landscape Heterogeneity and Disturbance. pp. 3–14. Edited by M.G. Turner. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  48. Risser, P.G., Karr, J.R. and Forman, R.T.T. 1984. Landscape ecology: directions and approaches. Special Publication 2, Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, Illinois.Google Scholar
  49. Ruzicka, M. and Miklos, L. 1990. Basic premises and methods in landscape ecological planning and optimization. In Changing Landscapes: An Ecological Perspective. pp. 233–260. Edited by I.S. Zonneveld and R.T.T. Forman. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  50. Saunders, D.A., Arnold, G.W., Burbidge, A.A. and Hopkins, A.J.M., eds. 1987. Nature conservation: the role of remnants of native vegetation. Surrey Beatty, Chipping Norton, Australia.Google Scholar
  51. Saunders, D.A. and Hobbs, R.J., eds. 1991. Nature conservation 2: the role of corridors. Surrey Beatty, Chipping Norton, Australia.Google Scholar
  52. Schreiber, K.-F., ed. 1988. Connectivity in landscape ecology. Munstersche Geographische Arbeiten 29, Ferdinand Schoningh, Paderborn, Germany.Google Scholar
  53. Schreiber, K.-F. 1990. The history of landscape ecology in Europe. In Changing Landscapes: An Ecological Perspective. pp. 21–34. Edited by I.S. Zonneveld and R.T.T. Forman. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Senft, R.L., Coughenour, M.B., Bailey, D.W., Rittenhouse, L.R., Sala, O.E. and Swift, D.M. 1987. Large herbivore foraging and ecological hierarchies. BioScience 37: 789–799.Google Scholar
  55. Shaver, G.R., Nadelhoffer, K.J. and Giblin, A.E. 1991. Biogeochemical diversity and element transport in a heterogeneous landscape, the North Slope of Alaska. In Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology. pp. 105–125. Edited by M.G. Turner and R.H. Gardner. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  56. Skidmore, E.L. 1987. Wind-erosion direction factors as influenced by field shape and wind preponderance. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51: 198–202.Google Scholar
  57. Swingland, I.R. and Greenwood, P.J., eds. 1983. The ecology of animal movement. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  58. Troll, C. 1939. Luftbildplan und okologische Bodenforschung. Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde zu Berlin, pp. 241–298.Google Scholar
  59. Troll, C. 1968. Landschaftsokologie. In Pflanzensoziologie und Landschaftsokologie. pp. 1–21. Edited by R. Tuxen. Berichte das 1963 Internalen Symposiums der Internationalen Vereinigung fur Vegetationskunde, The Hague.Google Scholar
  60. Turner, M.G., ed. 1987. Landscape heterogeneity and disturbance. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  61. Turner, M.G. 1989. Landscape ecology: the effect of pattern on process. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 20: 171–197.Google Scholar
  62. van der Zande, A.N., ter Keurs, W.J. and van der Weijden, W.J. 1980. The impact of roads on the densities of four bird species in an open field habitat - evidence of a long distance effect. Biological Conservation 18: 299–321.Google Scholar
  63. van Noorden, B. 1986. Dynamiek en dichtheid van bosvogels in geisoleerde loofbosfragmenten. Report 86/19, Research Institute for Nature Management, Leersum, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  64. Verboom, J., Schotman, A., Opdam, P. and Metz, J.A.J. 1991. European nuthatch metapopulations in a fragmented agricultural landscape. Oikos 61: 149–156.Google Scholar
  65. Watt, A.S. 1947. Pattern and process in the plant community. Journal of Ecology 35: 1–22.Google Scholar
  66. Wiens, J.A. 1990. On the use of ‘grain’ and ‘grain size’ in ecology. Functional Ecology 4: 720.Google Scholar
  67. Wiens, J.A., Crawford, C.S. and Gosz, J.R. 1986. Boundary dynamics: a conceptual framework for studying landscape ecosystems. Oikos 45: 421–427.Google Scholar
  68. Wiens, J.A., Stenseth, N.C., van Horne, B. and Ims, R.A. 1993. Ecological mechanisms and landscape ecology. Oikos 66: 369–380.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© SPB Academic Publishing bv 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard T. T. Forman
    • 1
  1. 1.Harvard University, Graduate School of DesignCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations