Landscape Ecology

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 291–302 | Cite as

The r.le programs for multiscale analysis of landscape structure using the GRASS geographical information system

  • William L. Baker
  • Yunming Cai
Article

Abstract

Geographical information systems (GIS) are well suited to the spatial analysis of landscape data, but generally lack programs for calculating traditional measures of landscape structure (e.g., fractal dimension). Standalone programs for calculating landscape structure measures do exist, but these programs do not enable the user to take advantage of GIS facilities for manipulating and analyzing landscape data. Moreover, these programs lack capabilities for analysis with sampling areas of different size (multiscale analysis) and also lack some needed measures of landscape structure (e.g., texture).

We have developed the r.le programs for analyzing landscape structure using the GRASS GIS. The programs can be used to calculate over sixty measures of landscape structure (e.g., distance, size, shape, fractal dimension, perimeters, diversity, texture, juxtaposition, edges) within sampling areas of several sizes simultaneously. Also possible are moving window analyses, which enable the production of new maps of the landscape structure within windows of a particular size. These new maps can then be used in other analyses with the GIS.

Keywords

landscape structure software geographical information systems GIS 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Addicott, J.F., Aho, J.M., Antolin, M.F., Padilla, M.F., Richardson, J.S. and Soluk, D.A. 1987. Ecological neighborhoods: scaling environmental patterns. Oikos 49: 340–346.Google Scholar
  2. Austin, R.F. 1984. Measuring and comparing two-dimensional shapes. In Spatial Statistics and Models. pp. 293–312. Edited by G.L. Gaile and C.J. Willmott. D. Reidel Publ. Co., Boston.Google Scholar
  3. Baker, W.L., Egbert, S.L. and Frazier, G.F. 1991. A spatial model for studying the effects of climatic change on the structure of landscapes subject to large disturbances. Ecol. Modell. 56: 109–125.Google Scholar
  4. Berry, J.K. 1987. Computer-assisted map analysis: potential and pitfalls. Photogr. Engin. and Rem. Sen. 53: 1405–1410.Google Scholar
  5. Cowen, D.J. 1988. GIS versus CAD versus DBMS: what are the differences? Photogr. Engin. and Rem. Sen. 54: 1551–1555.Google Scholar
  6. Dixon, C. and Leach, B. 1978. Sampling methods for geographical research. Geo Abstracts, Norwich. 47. pp.Google Scholar
  7. Donovan, M.L., Rabe, D.L. and Olson, C.E. Jr. 1987. Use of geographic information systems to develop habitat suitability models. Wild. Soc. Bull. 15: 574–579.Google Scholar
  8. Forman, R.T. and Godron, M. 1986. Landscape Ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 619. pp.Google Scholar
  9. Gardner, R.H., Milne, B.T., Turner, M.G. and O'Neill, R.V. 1987. Neutral models for the analysis of broad-scale landscape pattern. Landsc. Ecol. 1: 19–28.Google Scholar
  10. Goward, S.N., Tucker, C.J. and Dye, D.G. 1985. North American vegetation patterns observed with the NOAA-7 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. Vegetatio 64: 3–14.Google Scholar
  11. Griffiths, G.H. and Wooding, M.G. 1988. Pattern analysis and the ecological interpretation of satellite imagery. Proc. of IGARSS '88 Symposium. 88: 13–16.Google Scholar
  12. Haralick, R.M. 1975. Statistical and structural approaches to texture. Proceedings of the IEEE 67: 786–804.Google Scholar
  13. Haralick, R.M., Shanmugam, K. and Dinstein, I. 1973. Textural features for image classification. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics SMC-3: 610–621.Google Scholar
  14. Harlow, C. 1989. The future of GIS's - 18 important trends. Tech. Papers of the 1989 ASPRS/ACSM Ann. Conv. Vol. 5: 16–25.Google Scholar
  15. Haslett, J.R. 1990. Geographic information systems: a new approach to habitat definition and the study of distributions. TREE 5: 214–218.Google Scholar
  16. Heinen, J. and Cross, G.H. 1983. An approach to measure interspersion, juxtaposition, and spatial diversity from covertype maps. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 11: 232–237.Google Scholar
  17. Hodgson, M.E., Jensen, J.R., Mackey, H.E. Jr. and Coulter, M.C. 1988. Monitoring wood stork foraging habitat using remote sensing and geographic information systems. Photogr. Engin. and Rem. Sen. 54: 61–68.Google Scholar
  18. Hunsaker, C.T., Carpenter, D.E. and Messer, J. 1990. Ecological indicators for regional monitoring. Bull. Ecol. Soc. Am. 71: 165–172.Google Scholar
  19. Johnson, L.B. 1990. Analyzing spatial and temporal phenomena using geographical information systems: a review of ecological applications. Landsc. Ecol. 4: 31–43.Google Scholar
  20. Johnston, C.A. and Naiman, R.J. 1990. The use of a geographic information system to analyze long-term landscape alteration by beaver. Landsc. Ecol. 5: 5–19.Google Scholar
  21. Krummel, J.R., Gardner, R.H., Sugihara, G., O'Neill, R.V. and Coleman, P.R. 1987. Landscape patterns in a disturbed environment. Oikos 48: 321–324.Google Scholar
  22. Mead, R.A., Sharik, T.L., Prisley, S.P. and Heinen, J.T. 1981. A computerized spatial analysis system for assessing wildlife habitat from vegetation maps. Can. J. Rem. Sens. 7: 34–40.Google Scholar
  23. Musick, H.B. and Grover, H.D. 1990. Image textural measures as indices of landscape pattern. In Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology. pp. 77–103. Edited by M.G. Turner and R.H. Gardner. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  24. O'Neill, R.V., Krummel, J.R., Gardner, R.H., Sugihara, G., Jackson, B., Angelis, D.L., Milne, B.T., Turner, M.G., Zygmunt, B., Christensen, S.W., Dale, V.H. and Graham, R.L. 1988. Indices of landscape pattern. Landsc. Ecol. 1: 153–162.Google Scholar
  25. Piwowar, J.M., LeDrew, E.F. and Dudycha, D.J. 1990. Integration of spatial data in vector and raster formats in a geographic information system environment. Int. J. Geogr. Inform. Syst. 4: 429–444.Google Scholar
  26. Tomlin, C.D. 1990. Geographic information systems and cartographic modeling. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 249. pp.Google Scholar
  27. Turner, M.G. 1990. Spatial and temporal analysis of landscape patterns. Landsc. Ecol. 4: 21–30.Google Scholar
  28. Turner, M.G., O'Neill, R.V., Gardner, R.H. and Milne, B.T. 1989. Effects of changing spatial scale on the analysis of landscape pattern. Landsc. Ecol. 3: 153–162.Google Scholar
  29. USA-CERL. 1991. GRASS 4.0 User's Manual. United States Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, Champaign, Ill.Google Scholar
  30. Wiens, J.A. 1989. Spatial scaling in ecology. Functional Ecol. 3: 385–397.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© SPB Academic Publishing bv 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • William L. Baker
    • 1
  • Yunming Cai
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of WyomingLaramieUSA
  2. 2.Prisma Software, Corp.USA

Personalised recommendations