Biotechnology Letters

, Volume 17, Issue 7, pp 771–776 | Cite as

Kraft black liquor for improving the productivity of Spirulina biomass

  • Gurbaksh Singh
  • Vikas S. Chauhan
  • V. Ramamurthy


Mass cultivation of Spirulina for commercial application suffers from poor productivity when measured against laboratory results or theoretical projections. Wider applications of algal products require that this gap be reduced. Addition of eucalyptus kraft black liquor at a maximum of 0.1% to Spirulina cultures enhanced biomass productivity by at least 40%. The factors enhancing Spirulina biomass productivity were insoluble at low pH, of low molecular mass and stable to high temperature. Single addition of kraft black liquor in outdoor continuous cultures afforded sustained enhancement in biomass productivity for at least eight weeks.


Biomass Molecular Mass Biomass Productivity Eucalyptus Laboratory Result 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. American Public Health Association (APHA) standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 16th ed., APHA-AWWA-WPCI, Washington, DC, 1985.Google Scholar
  2. Bonnin, C., Spirulina production engineering handbook. Fevrier, Nantes, France, 1992.Google Scholar
  3. Ciferri, O. and Tiboni, O., Annu. Rev. Microbiol., 1985, 39, 503–526.Google Scholar
  4. Hall, D.O., in: Handbook of microalgal mass culture, ed. A. Richmond. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1986, pp 1–24.Google Scholar
  5. Haugstad, M., Ulsaker, L.K., Ruppel, A. and Nilsen, S., Physiol. Plant, 1983, 58, 451–456.Google Scholar
  6. Hills, C., The secrets of Spirulina, Medical discoveries of Japanese doctors. University Tree Press, Boulder Creek, CA, 1983.Google Scholar
  7. Kaplan, D., Richmond, A., Dubinsky, Z. and Aranson, S., in: Handbook of microalgal mass culature, ed. A. Richmond. CRC Press Inc., Boca-Raton, FL, 1986, pp 1–24.Google Scholar
  8. Komada, Y., Isogai, Y. and Satoh, K., Chem. Pharm. Bull., 1983, 31, 3771–3774.Google Scholar
  9. Pakdel, H., Zang, H.-G. and Roy, C., Bioresource Technol., 1994, 47, 45–53.Google Scholar
  10. Richmond, A. Handbook of microalgal mass culture. CRC Press Inc., Boca-Raton FL, 1986.Google Scholar
  11. Singh, G., Kothari, R.M., Sharma, R.K. and Ramamurthy, V., Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 1995 (in press).Google Scholar
  12. Sjostrom, E., Biomass Bioenergy, 1991, 1, 61–64.Google Scholar
  13. Switzer, L., Spirulina, the Whole Food Revolution. Bantam Books, Toranto, 1982.Google Scholar
  14. Vonshak, A. and Richmond, A. Biomass, 1988, 15, 233–247.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gurbaksh Singh
    • 1
  • Vikas S. Chauhan
    • 2
  • V. Ramamurthy
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Biotechnology, Thapar Institute of Engineering & TechnologyPatialaIndia
  2. 2.Biotechnology DivisionThapar Corporate Research & Development CentrePatialaIndia

Personalised recommendations