Advertisement

Biodiversity & Conservation

, Volume 3, Issue 9, pp 927–938 | Cite as

Introduced mammals in São Tomé and Príncipe: possible threats to biodiversity

  • John Dutton
Papers

Since São Tomé and Príncipe were colonized by Europeans in the 1470s alien mammal species have been introduced to these islands. The impact of these introduced species (14 to São Tomé Príncipe and 12 to Príncipe) is unknown and though this paper reviews all the available information for each alien species no firm conclusions can be gleaned about their effect on the native biota of the República Democrática de São Tomé e Príncipe. Despite the probable long association of many, if not all, the alien mammals it is clear that the long history of deforestation and habitat modification has had a greater detrimental impact to date. Although all the Red Data Book species are still present it is possible that the introduced mammals could cause future population declines and extinctions. Research and surveys are urgently required to discover the current status, distribution and ecology of both the native Red Data Book species and the alien species. These surveys, in conjunction with the identification of core areas for conservation would allow active management to control any detrimental impacts likely to be caused by the alien mammals. Once identified, regular monitoring programmes should be undertaken to ensure that the conservation aims are being achieved. At present there is a lack of any really suitable institutional organization with the responsibility or skills to undertake the required work. The development of such an organization should be a priority and support should be given both in the short and long terms by international organizations such as Birdlife International and the Gulf of Guinea Conservation Group.

Keywords

mammals introductions Gulf of Guinea biodiversity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Atkinson, I.A.E. (1985) The spread of commensal species of Rattus to oceanic islands and their effects on island avifaunas. In: Conservation of Island Birds, ICBP Technical Publication No. 3. (P.J.Moores, ed.) pp. 35–81. Cambridge: International Council for Bird Preservation.Google Scholar
  2. Atkinson, P.W., Dutton, J.S., Peet, N.B. and Sequeira, V.A.S. (1994) A Study of the Birds, Small Mammals, Turtles and Medicinal Plants of São Tomé with notes on Príncipe. Birdlife International Study Report No. 56. Cambridge: Birdlife International.Google Scholar
  3. Atkinson, P., Peet, N. and Alexander, J. (1991) The status and conservation of the endemic bird species of São Tomé and Príncipe, West Africa. Bird Conserv. Int. 1, 255–82.Google Scholar
  4. Berry, R.J. (1968) The ecology of an island population of the house mouse. J. Anim. Ecol. 37, 445–70.Google Scholar
  5. BDPA (1985) Potencialidedes Agricoles: Republica Democratica de São Tomé e Príncipe. Paris: Bureau pour le Development de la Production Agricole.Google Scholar
  6. Berry, R.J. (1968) The ecology of an island population of the house mouse. J. Anim. Ecol. 37, 445–70.Google Scholar
  7. Bocage, J.V.B. (1904a) Contribution à la faune des quatre îsles du Golfe du Guinée. 2. Ile de Prince. J. Acad. Sci. Lisboa. 7, 25–54.Google Scholar
  8. Bocage, J.V.B. (1904b) Contribution à la faune des quatre îsles du Golfe du Guinée. 4. Ile de Sao Tomé. J. Acad. Sci. Lisboa. 7, 65–96.Google Scholar
  9. Bocage, J.V.B. (1887) Sur un mammifère nouveau de I'lle S. Thomé. J. Acad. Sci. Lisboa. 11, 212–13.Google Scholar
  10. Bredero, J.T., Heemskerk, W. and Toxopeus, H. (1977) Agriculture and Livestock Production in São Tomé and Príncipe (West Africa). Unpublished report by the Foundation for Agricultural Plant Breeding, Wageningen, Holland.Google Scholar
  11. Brosset, A. (1963) Statut actuel des mammifères des îles Galapagos. Mammalia 27, 323–38.Google Scholar
  12. Churchfield, S. (1990) The Natural History of Shrews. London: Christopher Helm.Google Scholar
  13. Clark, D.A. (1981) Foraging patterns of black rats across a desert-montane forest gradient in the Galapagos Islands. Biotropica 13, 182–94.Google Scholar
  14. Collar, N.J. and Andrew, P. (1988) Birds to Watch: the ICBP Checklist of Threatened Birds. ICBP Technical Publication No. 3. Cambridge: International Council for Bird Preservation.Google Scholar
  15. Collar, N.J. and Stuart, S.M. (1985) Threatened Birds of Africa and Related Islands. The ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book Part 1., Cambridge: International Council for Bird Preservation/International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.Google Scholar
  16. Corbet, G.B. (1978) The Mammals of the Palearctic Region: a taxonomic review. London: British Museum (Natural History).Google Scholar
  17. Correia, J.G. (1928–1929) Field notes and diary from the expedition to San Thomé and Príncipe islands. Unpublished typescript held by the American Museum of Natural History, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Cruz, J.B. and Cruz, F. (1987) Conservation of the Dark-rumped Petrel Pterodroma phaeopygia in the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Biol. Cons. 42, 303–11.Google Scholar
  19. Daly, K. and Goriup, P. (1987) Eradication of Feral Goats from Small Islands ICBP Study Report No. 17. Cambridge: International Council for Bird Preservation.Google Scholar
  20. Denham, W.W. (1987) West Indian Green Monkeys: Problems in Historical Biogeography. Contributions to Primatology Vol. 24. Basel: Karger.Google Scholar
  21. Diamond, J.M. (1985) Population processes in island birds: immigration, extinction and fluctuations. In: Conservation of Island Birds, ICBP Technical Publications No. 3 (P.J.Moores, ed.) pp. 17–21. Cambridge: International Council for Bird Preservation.Google Scholar
  22. Elstvan der, R. and Prys-Jones, R.P. (1987) Mass killing by rats of roosting common noddies. Oryx 21, 219–22.Google Scholar
  23. Erlinge, S. (1975) Feeding habits of the weasel Mustela nivalis in relation to prey abundance. Oikos 26, 378–84.Google Scholar
  24. Exell, A.W. (1944) Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of S. Tomé (with Príncipe and Annobon). London: British Museum (Natural History).Google Scholar
  25. Feiler, A. (1984) Über die Säugetiere der Insel São Tomé. Zool. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 40, 75–8.Google Scholar
  26. Feiler, A. (1988) Die Säugetiere der Inseln im Golf von Guinea und ihre Beziehungen zur Säugetierfauna der westafrikanischen Festlandes. Zool. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 44, 83–8.Google Scholar
  27. Feiler, A., Haft, J. and Widmann, P. (1993) Beobachtungen und Untersuchungen an Säugetieren der Insel Sao Tomé (Golf von Guinea) (Mammalia). Faun. Abh. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden 19 (4), 21–35.Google Scholar
  28. Fernandes, V. (1951) Description de la Côte Occidentale d'Afrique (Sénégal au Cap de Monte, Archipels) par Valentim Fernandes (1506–1510). Centro de Estudos da Guine Portuguesa 11.Google Scholar
  29. Figueiredo, E. (1994) Diversity and endemism of angiosperms in the Gulf of Guinea islands. Biodiv. Conserv. 3 (9), 785–793.Google Scholar
  30. Fitzgerald, B.M. (1988) Diet of domestic cats and their impact on prey populations. In The Domestic Cat: the biology of its behaviour (D.C.Turner and P.Bateson, eds) pp. 123–47. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Frade, F. (1958) Aves e mammiferos das Ilhas de São Tomé e do Príncipe-notas de sistematica e de proteccao a fauna. Conferencia Internacional dos Africanistes Occidendais, Lisboa 4, 137–50.Google Scholar
  32. Gautier-Hion, A. (1988) The diet and dietary habits of forest guenons. In A Primate Radiation: Evolutionary Biology of the African Guenons (A.Gautier-Hion, F.Boulière, J.Gautier and J.Kingdon, eds) pp. 257–83. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Gautier-Hion, A. (1980) Seasonal variations of diet related to soecies and sex in a community of Cercopithecus monkeys. J. Anim. Ecol. 49, 237–69.Google Scholar
  34. Greef, R. (1884) Uber die fauna der Guinea-Inseln S. Thomé und Rolas. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft zur Befoderung der gesammten Natutwissenschaften zu Marburg 2, 41–79.Google Scholar
  35. Heim deBalsac, H.H. and Hutterer, R. (1982) Les Soricidae (Mammifères, Insectivores) des îles de Golfe de Guinee: faits nouveaux et problèmes biogéographiques. Bonn. zool. Beitr. 33, 133–50.Google Scholar
  36. Hodges, T. and Newitt, M. (1988) São Tomé and Príncipe from Plantation Colony to Microstate. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  37. Howes, C.A. (1977) A survey of the food habits of stoats (Mustela erminea) and weasels (Mustela nivalis) in Yorkshire. Naturalist, Leeds 102, 117–21.Google Scholar
  38. Jones, C.G., Swinnerton, K.J., Taylor, C.J. and Mungroo, Y. (1992) The release of captive-bred pink pigeons Columba mayeri in native forest on Mauritius. A progress report July 1987–June 1992. Dodo. J. Wildl. Preserv. Trusts 28, 92–125.Google Scholar
  39. Jones, P.J. and Tye, A. (1988) A Survey of the Avifauna of Sao Tomé and Príncipe. ICBP Study Report No. 24. Cambridge: International Council for Bird Preservation.Google Scholar
  40. Juste, J. and Ibañez, C. (1994) Bats of the Gulf of Guinea islands: Faunal composition and origins. Biodiv. Conserv. 3 (9), 837–850.Google Scholar
  41. Kepler, C.B. and Scott, J.M. (1985) Conservation of island ecosystems In Conservation of Island Birds, ICBP Technical Publication No. 3 (P.J.Moores, ed.) pp. 255–71 Cambridge: International Council for Birds Preservation.Google Scholar
  42. King, C.M. (1989) The Natural History of Weasels and Stoats. London: Christopher Helm.Google Scholar
  43. King, C.M. (1991) Weasel Mustela nivalis In The Handbook of British Mammals (G.B.Corbet and S.Harris, eds) pp. 387–96. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.Google Scholar
  44. King, W.B. (1985) Island birds: will the future repeat the past? In Conservation of Island Birds, ICBP Technical Publication No. 3 (P.J.Moores, ed.) pp. 3–15. Cambridge: International Council for Bird Preservation.Google Scholar
  45. Lever, C. (1985) Naturalized Mammals of the World. Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
  46. Medway, Lord (1969) The Wild Mammals of Malaya and Offshore Islands Including Singapore. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Moller, A.P. (1983) Damage by rats Rattus norvegicus to breeding on Danish islands. Biol. Cons. 25, 5–18.Google Scholar
  48. Moors, P.J. (1985) Eradication campaigns against Rattus norvegicus on the Noises Islands, New Zealand, using Brodifacoum and 1080 In Conservation of Island Birds, ICBP Technical Publication No. 3 (P.J.Moors, ed.) pp. 143–55. Cambridge: International Council for Bird Preservation.Google Scholar
  49. Moors, P.J. and Atkinson, A.E. (1984) Predation on seabirds by introduced animals, and factors affecting its severity. In Status and Conservation of the World's Seabirds ICBP Technical Publication No. 2. (J.P.Croxall, P.G.H.Evans and R.W.Schreiber, eds) pp. 667–90 Cambridge: International Council for Bird Preservation.Google Scholar
  50. Nowak, R.M. (1991a). Walker's Mammals of the World 5th Edition Vol. 1. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Nowak, R.M. (1991b) Walker's Mammals of the World 5th Edition Vol. 2. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Oliver, W.L.R. (1984) Introduced and feral pigs. In Feral Mammals — Problems and Potential (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, ed.) pp. 85–126. Gland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.Google Scholar
  53. Poirier, F.E. (1972) The St. Kitts green monkey (Cercopithecus sabaeus): ecology, population dynamics, and selected behavioural traits. Folia Primat. 17, 20–55.Google Scholar
  54. Rosevear, D.R. (1974) The Carnivores of West Africa. London: British Museum (Natural History).Google Scholar
  55. Sergeant, D., Gullick, T., Turner, D. and Sinclair, J. (1992) The rediscovery of the São Tomé Grosbeak Neospiza concolor in southwestern São Tomé. Bird Conservation International 2. 157–9.Google Scholar
  56. Seitre, R. and Seitre, J. (1992) Causes of land-bird extinctions in French Polynesia. Oryx 26, 215–22.Google Scholar
  57. Skinner, J.D. and Smithers, R.H.N. (1990) The Mammals of the Southern African Subregion. Pretoria: University of Pretoria.Google Scholar
  58. Usher, M.B. (1989) Ecological effects of controlling invasive terrestrial vertebrates. In Biological Invasions: a Global Perspective (J.A.Drake, H.A.Mooney, F.diCastri, R.H.Groves, F.J.Kruger, M.Rejmnek and M.Williamson, eds) pp. 463–89. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.Google Scholar
  59. Veitch, C.R. (1985) Methods of eradicating feral cats from off shore islands in New Zealand. In Conservation of Island Birds, ICBP Technical Publication No. 3. (P.J.Moores, ed.) pp. 125–41. Cambridge: International Council for Bird Preservation.Google Scholar
  60. vanVuren, D. and Coblenz, B.E. (1984) Impacts and adaptations of feral sheep on Santa Cruz Island, California. In Feral Mammals — Problems and Potential (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, ed.) pp. 43–53. Gland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.Google Scholar
  61. Wace, N.M. (1986) The rat problem on oceanic islands-research is needed. Oryx 20, 79–86.Google Scholar
  62. Ward, R.J. (1981) Diet and Nutrition. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, 47, 255–66.Google Scholar
  63. Whitaker, A.H. (1973) Lizard populations on islands with and without Polynesian rats, Rattus exulans (Peale). Proc. N.Z. Ecol. Soc. 20, 121–30.Google Scholar
  64. Whitaker, J.O. (1966) Food of Mus musculus, Peromyscus maniculatus bairdi and Peromyscus leucopus in Vigo County, Indiana. J. Mamm.. 47, 473–86.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Dutton
    • 1
  1. 1.Senool of Biological SciencesUniversity of East AngliaNorwichUK

Personalised recommendations