A shape- and chemistry-based docking method and its use in the design of HIV-1 protease inhibitors
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The program DOCK [1,2] has been used successfully to identify molecules which will bind to a specified receptor . The original method ranks molecules based on their shape complementarity to the receptor site and relies on the chemist to bring the appropriate electrostatic or hydrogen bond properties into the molecular skeletons obtained in the search. This is useful when screening a small database of compounds, where it is not likely that molecules with both the correct shape and electrostatic properties will be found. As large databases are more likely to have redundant molecular shapes with a variety of functionality (e.g., members of a congeneric series), it would be useful to have a method which identifies molecules with both the correct shape and functionality. To this end we have modified the DOCK 1.0 method to target user-specified atom types to selected positions in the receptor site. The target sites can be chosen based on structural evidence, calculation or inspection. Targeted-DOCK improves the ability of the DOCK method to find the crystallographically determined binding mode of a ligand. Additionally, targeted-DOCK searches a database of small molecules at 100–1000 times the rate of DOCK 1.0, allowing more molecules to be screened and more sophisticated scoring schemes to be employed. Targeted-DOCK has been used successfully in the design of a novel non-peptide inhibitor of HIV-1 protease.
Key wordsLigand design Molecular shape DOCK Database searching
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