Advertisement

Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 197–215 | Cite as

Soil fertility changes and response of maize and beans to green manures of leucaena, sesbania and pigeonpea

  • J. F. M. Onim
  • M. Mathuva
  • K. Otieno
  • H. A. Fitzhugh
Article

Abstract

Three multipurpose tree species (MPTS)-leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), sesbania (Sesbania sesban var. nubica) and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) were pruned at a height of 60 cm above the ground every two months, and resulting plant biomass was incorporated into the soil as green manure. For comparison, maize (Zea mays) stover was also incorporated into some plots, while some other plots were left fallow. Varying quantities of plant biomass which were incorporated into the soil over a period of 12 months caused large changes in major soil plant nutrients, and it substantially improved soil fertility. To test for improved soil fertility, test crops of maize and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were grown on the plots after six biomass incorporations of 4806, 13603, 16659 and 7793 kg. ha−1yr−1 for pigeonpea, sesbania leucaena and maize, respectively. Responses of the test crops indicated that sesbania and leucaena green manures improved maize stover, cobs and grain yields; and bean haulms and grain yields by 77.6% when compared to fallow plots. Residual effects of green manures still resulted in significant (P < 0.05) yield differences in the test cropin the third testing season. Economic significance of green manures in increasing food crop yields to small scale farmers is discussed.

Key words

Agroforestry green manure leucaena sesbania pigeonpea soil fertility maize beans 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anonymous (1919) Propagation and culture of the date palm. USAID Farmer's Bulletin 1016, In: Sesbania in Agriculture by DO Evans and PP Rotar. Westview Tropical Agriculture Series No 8 p 27–46Google Scholar
  2. Buckman HO and Brady NC (1969) The nature and properties of soils. 7th ed, Macmillan Co. p 132–486Google Scholar
  3. Budelman A (1988) The decomposition of the leaf mulches of Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium and Flemingia under humid tropical conditions. Agroforestry Systems 7(1): 33–46Google Scholar
  4. Dargan KS Chillar RK and Bhardwaj KKR (1975) Green manuring for more paddy in alkali soils. Indian Farming 25(3): 13–14Google Scholar
  5. Dunbar AR (1969) The annual crops of Uganda. East African Literature Bureau, p 68–70Google Scholar
  6. Evans DO, Yost RS and Lundeen BW (1983) A selection and annotated bibliography of tr tropical green manures and legume covers. Hawaii Institute of Tropical Agricultural and human resources research and extension series 028, p 211Google Scholar
  7. Mehlich A (1960) Charge characterisation of soils. Trans 7th Int Congr SoilSci, Madison, WisGoogle Scholar
  8. Muchena FN and Nyandat NN (1980) Rating of land qualities and the conversion into land suitability in Kenya with particular emphasis on soil moisture storage and climatic conditions. Paper presented at 14th meeting of Eastern Africa sub-committee for soil correlation and land evaluation, Arusha, 29th October 4th November 1980Google Scholar
  9. Musalia LM, Semenye PP and Fitzhugh HA (1989) Mineral status of dual-purpose goats and forage in western Kenya. Small Ruminant Research 2: 1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Onim JFM, Mathuva M, Hart R, Fitzhugh HA and Otieno K (1986) Recommendation domains for dual-purpose goat research in Nyanza and Western provinces of Kenya. Proceedings of the 5th Small Ruminant CRSP Kenya Workshop, Kabete, Kenya. November 4, 5 and 6th, 1986. p 40–47Google Scholar
  11. Onim JFM, Ochola P, Mathuva M, Otieno K and Fitzhugh HA (1987) Dry matter Nitrogen and green manure yields of Leuceana Sesbania and Pigeonpea in a cutting frequency study. Proceedings of the sixth Kenya Veterinary Association and Small Ruminant CRSP Workshop. ILRAD, Nairobi — Kenya, p 103–113Google Scholar
  12. Rao JVDK, Dart PJ, Matsumoto T and Day JM (1980) Nitrogen fixation by pigeonpea. ICRISAT (International crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics) 1981 Proceedings of the international workshop on pigeonpeas, Volume 1, 15–19 December 1980. Patancheru AP India. p 190–199Google Scholar
  13. Robinson JBD and Semp G (1968) Advisory Soilor plant analysis and fertilizer use. I. Comparison of soil analysis methods. E AFr agric For J 34: 117–139Google Scholar
  14. Singh MP and Sinha KS (1962) Studies in the green manuring of wheat in Bihar II: Green manuring without losing a kharif crop. Indian Journal of Agronomy 7: 38–45Google Scholar
  15. Ssali H and Keya SO (1982) Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on yield of beans inoculated with Rhizobium phaseoli. Kenya J Sci Technol (B) p 387–389Google Scholar
  16. Stephens D (1969) The effects of fertilizers, manure and trace elements in continuous cropping, rotations in Southern and Western Uganda. E Afr agric For J 34: 401–417Google Scholar
  17. US National Academy of Science (1977). In: Browse in Africa—The Current State of Knowledge. HN Le Houerou (Ed), p 141–149Google Scholar
  18. William WA and Doneen LD (1960) Field infiltration studies with green manures and crop residues on irrigated soils. Soil Science Society of America proceeding, 24: 58–61Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. F. M. Onim
    • 1
  • M. Mathuva
    • 2
  • K. Otieno
    • 2
  • H. A. Fitzhugh
    • 1
  1. 1.Winrock International Institute for Agricultural DevelopmentMasenoKenya
  2. 2.Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI)MasenoKenya

Personalised recommendations