Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 53, Issue 1–2, pp 63–76 | Cite as

Eddy-covariance CO2 flux measurements using open- and closed-path CO2 analysers: Corrections for analyser water vapour sensitivity and damping of fluctuations in air sampling tubes

  • R. Leuning
  • J. Moncrieff


Methods of calibrating infrared CO2 analysers for sensitivity to CO2 and water vapour are described. Equations to correct eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements are presented for: (i) analyser cross-sensitivity to water vapour and the effects of density fluctuations arising from atmospheric fluxes of water vapour and sensible heat, (ii) flux losses caused by signal processing and limited instrument frequency response for open- and closed-path CO2 analysers, and (iii) flux losses resulting from damping of concentration fluctuations in a tube used to sample air for closed-path CO2 analysers. Examples of flux corrections required for typical instruments are presented.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, D. E. and Verma, S. B.: 1985, ‘Turbulence Spectra of CO2, Water Vapor, Temperature and Wind Velocity Fluctuations over a Crop Surface’, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 33, 1–14.Google Scholar
  2. Brach, E. J., Desjardins, R. L., and StAmour, G. T.: 1981, ‘Open Path CO2 Analyser’, J. Phys. E. (Sci. Instrum.) 14, 1415–1419.Google Scholar
  3. Denmead, O. T.: 1969, ‘Comparative Micrometeorology of a Wheat Field and a Forest of Pinus radiata’, Agric. Meteorol. 6, 357–371.Google Scholar
  4. Denmead, O. T. and Bradley, E. F.: 1985, ‘Flux-Gradient Relationships in a Forest’, in B. A. Hutchison and B. B. Hicks (eds.), The Forest Atmosphere Interaction, pp. 421–442, D. Reidel Publishing Co., Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  5. Jones, E. P., Ward, T. V., and Zwick, H. H.: 1978, ‘A Fast Response Atmospheric CO2 Sensor for Eddy Correlation Flux Measurements’, Atmos. Environ, 12, 845–851.Google Scholar
  6. Kaimal, J. C., Wyngaard, J. C., Izumi, Y., and Coté, O. R.: 1972, ‘Spectral Characteristics of Surface-Layer Turbulence’, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 563–589.Google Scholar
  7. Kays, W. M. and Crawford, M. E.: 1980, Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.Google Scholar
  8. Leuning, R., Denmead, O. T., Lang, A. R. G., and Ohtaki, E.: 1982, ‘Effects of Heat and Water Vapor Transport on Eddy Covariance Measurement of CO2 Fluxes’, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 23, 209–222.Google Scholar
  9. Moore, C. J.: 1986, ‘Frequency Response Corrections for Eddy Correlation Systems’, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 37, 17–35.Google Scholar
  10. Ohtaki, E.: 1985, ‘On the Similarity in Atmospheric Fluctuations of Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapour and Temperature over Vegetated Fields’, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 32, 25–37.Google Scholar
  11. Ohtaki, E. and Matsui, M.: 1982, ‘Infra-Red Device for Simultaneous Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapour’, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 24, 109–119.Google Scholar
  12. Parkinson, K. J.: 1971, ‘Carbon Dioxide Infra-Red Gas Analysis’, J. Exp. Bot. 22, 169–176.Google Scholar
  13. Philip, J. R.: 1963a, ‘The Theory of Dispersal during Laminar Flow in Tubes. II’, Aust. J. Phys. 16, 300–310.Google Scholar
  14. Philip, J. R.: 1963b, ‘The Damping of a Fluctuating Concentration by Continuous Sampling through a Tube’, Aust. J. Phys. 16, 454–463.Google Scholar
  15. Raupach, M. R.: 1979, ‘Anomalies in Flux-Gradient Relationships over Forest’, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 16, 467–486.Google Scholar
  16. Thom, A. S., Stewart, J. B. Oliver, H. R., and Gash, J. H. C.: 1975, ‘Comparison of Aerodynamic and Energy Budget Estimates of Fluxes over a Pine Forest’, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 101, 93–105.Google Scholar
  17. Webb, E. K., Pearman, G. I., and Leuning, R.: 1980, ‘Correction of Flux Measurements for Density Effects due to Heat and Water Vapour Transfer’, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 106, 85–100.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Leuning
    • 1
  • J. Moncrieff
    • 2
  1. 1.CSIRO Division of Forestry and Forest ProductsCanberraAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Forestry and Natural ResourcesUniversity of EdinburghEdinburghScotland

Personalised recommendations