Advertisement

Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 351–372 | Cite as

Parameterization of subsurface heating for soil and concrete using net radiation data

  • Dennis Doll
  • J. K. S. Ching
  • Jack Kaneshiro
Article

Abstract

The variability of surface sensible heat flux depends strongly on the heating rate of the material beneath the surface. This variability is expected to be large in urban areas where the surfaces are layered with a variety of man-made materials. Parameterization of the ground heat storage as a function of surface materials is presented based on analyses of data obtained during the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Air Pollution Study conducted in St. Louis, Missouri. Ground heat flux data are derived from observations of surface and subsurface temperatures for a soil layer and for concrete slabs resting on soil. The data show that the presence of the concrete slabs increases the ground storage term relative to that for soil alone. The ground storage and sensible heat flux terms for a blackened concrete slab are larger than for an unpainted concrete slab. For the concrete surfaces, the ratio of ground storage to net radiation is >1 at night and <1 during the day. This ratio is discontinuous at sunrise and sunset transition periods. For soil, the ratio shows similar temporal behavior except that on average, there is a smoother transition at sunrise. Simple mathematical expressions giving the ratio of ground heat storage to net radiation as a function of time are presented.

Keywords

Heat Flux Concrete Slab Concrete Surface Radiation Data Subsurface Temperature 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Camuffo, D. and Bernardi, A.: 1982, ‘An Observational Study of Heat Fluxes and Their Relationships with Net Radiation’, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 23, 359–368.Google Scholar
  2. Ching, J. K. S., Clarke, J. F., and Godowitch, J. M.: 1983a, ‘Modulation of Heat Flux by Different Scales of Advection in an Urban Environment’, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 25, 171–191.Google Scholar
  3. Ching, J. K. S., Clarke, J. F., Irwin, J. S., and Godowitch, J. M.: 1983b, ‘Relevance of Mixed Layer Scaling for Daytime Dispersion Based on RAPS and other Field Programs’, Atmos. Environ. 17(4), 859–871.Google Scholar
  4. Clarke, R. H., Dyer, A. J., Brook, R. R., Reid, D. G., and Troup, A. J.: 1971, The Wangara Experiment: Boundary-Layer Data, CSIRO Div. of Meteorol. Phys., Tech. Paper No. 19.Google Scholar
  5. Clarke, J. F., Ching, J. K. S., and Godowitch, J. M.: 1982, An Experimental Study of Turbulence in an Urban Environment, US EPA Tech. Report EPA 600/3-82-062.Google Scholar
  6. Deardorff, J. W.: 1978, ‘Efficient Prediction of Ground Surface Temperature and Moisture with Inclusion of a Layer of Vegetation’, J. Geophy. Res. 83, 1889–1903.Google Scholar
  7. Doll, D. C: 1983, ‘Diurnal Variability of the Surface Energy Budget Fluxes for Three Contrasting Land Use Surface Materials’, Masters Thesis, North Carolina State University. Raleigh NC.Google Scholar
  8. Edson, R. T.: 1980, ‘Parameterization of Net Radiation at the Surface Using Data from the Wangara Experiment’, Environ. Res. Papers, Colorado State University. Ft. Collins CO.Google Scholar
  9. Gadd, A. J. and Keers, J. F.: 1970, ‘Surface Exchanges of Sensible and Latent Heat in a 10-Level Model Atmosphere’, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 96, 297–308.Google Scholar
  10. Idso, S. B., Aase, J. K., and Jackson, R. D.: 1975, ‘Net Radiation-Soil Heat Flux Relations as Influenced by Soil Water Content Variations’, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 9, 113–122.Google Scholar
  11. McGaw, R. W.: 1979, ‘Thermal Diffusivity of Missouri Clay as Calculated from Measurements of Thermal Conductivity and Heat Capacity’, Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), Final Report, Subsurface Heat Flux Study, pp. 42–69.Google Scholar
  12. Nickerson, E. C, and Smiley, V. E.: 1975, ‘Surface Layer and Energy Budget Parameterization for Mesoscale Models’, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 297–300.Google Scholar
  13. Oke, T. R., Kalanda, B. D., and Spittlehouse, D. L.: 1980, ‘Suburban Energy Balance Estimates for Vancouver, B. C., Using the Bowen Ratio-Energy Balance Approach’, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 791–801.Google Scholar
  14. Oke, T. R., Kalanda, B. D., and Steyn, D. G.: 1981, ‘Parameterization of Heat Storage in Urban Areas’, Urban Ecol. 5, 45–54.Google Scholar
  15. Oke, T. R. and Yap, D.: 1974, ‘Sensible Heat Fluxes over an Urban Area-Vancouver, B. C.’, J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 880–889.Google Scholar
  16. Rockwell International: 1979, Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), Final Report, Subsurface Heat Flux Study, Prepared for: Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Sciences Research Laboratory, Contract No. 68-02-2093.Google Scholar
  17. Sellers, W.: 1965, Physical Climatology, University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  18. Univac Systems, Inc.: 1975, ‘Large Scale Systems MATH-PACK’, Programmers Reference Rev. I. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dennis Doll
    • 1
  • J. K. S. Ching
    • 2
  • Jack Kaneshiro
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric SciencesNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  2. 2.Meteorology DivisionAtmospheric of Sciences Research Laboratory, Environmental Protection AgencyResearch Triangle ParkUSA
  3. 3.Det. 50, Second Weather SquadronNASA — Johnsoin Space Flight CenterHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations