Advertisement

Genetica

, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 217–233 | Cite as

Karyotypes, nucleoli, and amphiplasty in hybrids between Hordeum vulgare L. and H. bulbosum L.

  • W. Lange
  • G. Jochemsen
Article

Chromosome measurements were carried out in Hordeum vulgare, H. bulbosum, and their diploid, triploid, and tetraploid hybrids. The chromosomes were classified by using relative values, and thus karyotypes were established. For comparison of these karyotypes both relative and absolute values were used. It was concluded that differential amphiplasty occurred, whereas neutral amphiplasty could not be demonstrated. In the hybrids the relative length of the parts of the chromosomes (long arm, short arm, satellite) was not changed in comparison with these lengths in the pure species. The karyotypes of both species had considerable similarities. From comparing the mean absolute genome lengths, it was, however, concluded that in the pure species, as well as in all hybrid types, the chromosomes of H. vulgare were longer than those of H. bulbosum. In the diploid and tetraploid hybrids the mean genome lengths were shorter than those in the pure species and the triploid hybrids. The differential amphiplasty was such that the secondary constriction of chromosome 6 of H. bulbosum, did not show up in the hybrids. This could be related to the suppression of nucleolar formation in the genome of H. bulbosum, because the maximum number of nucleoli in root tip cells equalled the number of satellite chromosomes. Finally it was found that the pattern of nucleolar fusion in diploid and triploid hybrids deviated from the expectation. The results were discussed in relation to chromosomal disturbances that occurred in the hybrid tissues and that resulted in elimination of chromosomes and other effects.

Keywords

Hordeum Vulgare Relative Length Genome Length Secondary Constriction Hybrid Type 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bennett, M. D. & J. B. Smith (1971). The 4C nuclear DNA content of several Hordeum genotypes. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 13: 607–611.Google Scholar
  2. Bhattacharyya, N. K., L. E. Evans & B. C. Jenkins (1961). Karyotype analysis of the individual “Dakold” fall rye chromosome additions to “Kharkov” winter wheat. Nucleus (Calcutta) 4: 25–38.Google Scholar
  3. Bradley, M. V. (1948). A method for making aceto-carmine squashes permanent without removal of the cover slip. Stain Technol. 23: 41–44.Google Scholar
  4. Burnham, C. R. & A. Hagberg (1956). Cytogenetic notes on chromosomal inter-changes in barley. Hereditas 42: 467–482.Google Scholar
  5. Crosby, A. R. (1957). Nucleolar activity of lagging chromosomes in wheat. Am. J. Bot. 44: 813–822.Google Scholar
  6. Darlington, C. D. (1937). Recent advances in cytology. Churchill Ltd. London (2nd ed.), pp. 671.Google Scholar
  7. Darvey, N. L. & C. J. Driscoll (1972a). Nucleolar behaviour in Triticum. Chromosoma 36: 131–139.Google Scholar
  8. Darvey, N. L. & C. J. Driscoll (1972b). Evidence against somatic association in hexaploid wheat. Chromosoma 36: 140–149.Google Scholar
  9. Giorgi, B. & A. Bozzini (1969a). Karyotype analysis in Triticum. III. Analysis of the presumed diploid progenitors of polyploid wheats. Caryologia 22: 279–288.Google Scholar
  10. Giorgi, B. & A. Bozzini (1969b). Karyotype analysis in Triticum. IV. Analysis of (Aegilops speltoides x Triticum boeoticum) amphiploid and a hypothesis on the evolution of tetraploid wheats. Caryologia 22: 289–306.Google Scholar
  11. Heneen, W. K. (1962). Karyotype studies in Agropyron junceum, A. repens and their spontaneous hybrids. Hereditas 48: 471–502.Google Scholar
  12. Kao, K. N. & K. J. Kasha (1970). Haploidy from interspecific crosses with tetraploid barley. Barley Genetics II. Proc. Int. Barley Genet. Symp. (1969), 82–87.Google Scholar
  13. Kasha, K. J. & K. N. Kao (1970). High frequency haploid production in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Nature Lond. 225: 874–876.Google Scholar
  14. Kasha, K. J., K. N. Kao & E. Reinbergs (1970). Genetic control over chromosome stability in hybrids from interspecific Hordeum crosses. Genetics, Supp. 64: 33.Google Scholar
  15. Kasha, K. J. & R. S. Sadasivaiah (1971). Genome relationships between Hordeum vulgare L. and H. bulbosum L. Chromosoma 35: 264–287.Google Scholar
  16. Keep, E. (1960). Amphiplasty in Ribes. Nature Lond. 188: 339.Google Scholar
  17. Keep, E. (1962). Satellite and nucleolar number in hybrids between Ribes nigrum and R. grossularia and in their backcrosses. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 4: 206–218.Google Scholar
  18. Lange, W. (1969). Cytogenetical and embryological research on crosses between Hordeum vulgare and H. bulbosum. Versl. landbouwk. Onderz. PUDOC, Wageningen, 719, pp. 162, Dutch with English summary.Google Scholar
  19. Lange, W. (1971a). Crosses between Hordeum vulgare L. and H. bulbosum L. I. Production, morphology and meiosis of hybrids, haploids and dihaploids. Euphytica 20: 14–29.Google Scholar
  20. Lange, W. (1971b). Crosses between Hordeum vulgare L. and H. bulbosum L. II. Elimination of chromosomes in hybrid tissues. Euphytica 20: 181–194.Google Scholar
  21. Langridge, W. H. R., T. A. O'Malley & H. Wallace (1970). Neutral amphiplasty and regulation of the cell cycle in Crepis herbs. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 67: 1894–1900.Google Scholar
  22. Li, H. W. & D. S. Tu (1947). Studies on the chromosomal aberrations of the amphidiploid Triticum timopheevi and Aegilops bicornis. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. Shanghai 7: 174–186. From reference by Lindström, J. 1965, Hereditas 54.Google Scholar
  23. Longwell, A. C. & G. Svihla (1960). Specific chromosomal control of the nucleolus and of the cytoplasm in wheat. Exp. Cell. Res. 20: 294–312.Google Scholar
  24. McClintock, B. (1934). The relation of a particular chromosomal element to the development of the nucleoli in Zea mays. Z. Zellforsch. mikrosk. Anat. 21: 294–328.Google Scholar
  25. Navashin, M. S. (1928). “Amphiplastie” — eine neue karyologische Erscheinung. Proc. int. Conf. Genet. 5 (1927), 1148–1152.Google Scholar
  26. Navashin, M. S. (1934). Chromosome alterations caused by hybridization and their bearing upon certain general genetic problems. Cytologia 5: 169–203.Google Scholar
  27. Pieritz, W. J. (1970). Elimination von Chromosomen in amphidiploiden Weizen-Roggen-Bastarden (Triticale). Z. Pfl. Zücht. 64: 90–109.Google Scholar
  28. Sadasivaiah, R. S. & T. Rajhathy (1969). Genome relationships in tetraploid Avena. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 10: 655–669.Google Scholar
  29. Symko, S. (1969). Haploid barley from crosses of Hordeum bulbosum (2x) × Hordeum vulgare (2x). Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 11: 602–608.Google Scholar
  30. Tjio, J. H. & A. Hagberg (1951). Cytological studies on some X-ray mutants of barley. An. Estac. exp. Aula Dei 2: 149–167.Google Scholar
  31. Tjio, J. H. & A. Levan (1950). The use of oxyquinoline in chromosome analysis. An. Estac. exp. Aula Dei 2: 21–64.Google Scholar
  32. Tsuchiya, T. (1960). Cytogenetic studies of trisomics in barley. Jap. J. Bot. 17: 177–213.Google Scholar
  33. Tsuchiya, T. (1964). Chromosome aberrations and their use in genetics and breeding in barley — trisomics and aneuploids. Barley Genetics I. Proc. int. Barley Genet. Symp. (1963), 166–150.Google Scholar
  34. Wallace, H. & W. H. R. Langridge (1971). Differential amphiplasty and the control of ribosomal RNA synthesis. Heredity 27: 1–13.Google Scholar
  35. Wilkinson, J. (1941). The cytology of the cricket bat willow (Salix alba var. Caerula). Ann. Bot. 5: 149–165.Google Scholar
  36. Wilkinson, J. (1944). The cytology of Salix in relation to its taxonomy. Ann. Bot. 8: 269–289.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Lange
    • 1
  • G. Jochemsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute de HaaffFoundation for Agricultural Plant BreedingWageningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations