Turbulent exchange above a pine forest II. Organized structures
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Data from two 100-min runs on the turbulent atmospheric wind, temperature and humidity fields above a pine forest have been analysed using conditional sampling techniques. With the aid of the temperature time series, ramp events were identified and all fields were averaged in order to remove smaller scale turbulence and random low-frequency turbulence, and to map the organized structures revealed in this way. It is shown that the turbulent fluxes of momentum, heat and humidity, determined from these ramp-events, in fact constitute a large part of the total fluxes, about 90% during the actual events.
On average, the duration of and the time between ramps were found to be about 35 s and 100 s, respectively. These periods were also found in the uw-, wT- and wq-cospectra, not only in the data analysed in this paper, but in the major part of all day-time data from this forest site (about 80 runs of 60 or 100 min). This indicates that the ramp events described arc a rather common phenomenon. The organized structures also have remarkable resemblance to near-wall structures observed in the laboratory.
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