Advertisement

Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 213–222 | Cite as

Effect of spacing on growth and biomass production of Gliricidia sepium (jacq) walp in an alley cropping system in Sierra Leone

  • A. B. Karim
  • P. S. Savill
Article

Abstract

This paper describes a study into the influences of spacing on the early performance and biomass production of Gliricidia sepium in an alley cropping system in southern Sierra Leone. Four between-row spacings of 2, 4, 6 and 8 m were combined with three within-row spacings (0.25, 0.50 and 1.00m) in a split plot experimental design.

Survival, tree height and leaf nitrogen content were not affected by between- or within-row spacings. For the other parameters measured, namely root-collar diameter, branch production, total biomass and nitrogen yields per hectare, it was found that for equivalent tree densities, the lower the rectangularity of planting, the better the performance of the individual trees, and consequently the greater the yields per hectare.

Total biomass production per unit area was, expectedly, greatest where the spacings between hedgerows were closest, while production per plant decreased with closer within-row spacings. The total fresh and dry weights of leaves and stems, as well as leaf nitrogen yields per unit area were strongly influenced by between-row spacing and less so by within-row spacing.

Key words

Gliricidia sepium spacing biomass agroforestry 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Beldt van den RJ, Brewbaker JL, Hu TW and Boontawee B (1982) International Leucaena population trials. Leucaena Research Report 3: 96–99Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bhatia N and Kapoor P (1985) Regulation of numbers and dispersion in Leucaena leucocephala stand density effect. Leucaena Research Report 6: 23–24Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Burley J (1980) Choice of tree species and possibility of genetic improvement for small holder and community forest. Commonwealth Forestry Review 59: 311–326Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cannell MGR (1983) Plant population and yield of tree and herbaceous crops. In: Huxley PA,ed, Plant Research and Agroforestry, pp 489–502. ICRAF, Nairobi, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Catie (1979) Proceedings of Workshop on Agro-forestry Systems in Latin America, Centro Agron. Tropical Investigacio Ensenanza, Turialba, Costa RicaGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gutteridge RC and Akkasaeng GR (1985) Evaluation of nitrogen fixing trees in northeast Thailand. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports 3: 46–47Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hughes CE (1987) Biological considerations in designing a seed collection strategy for Gliricidia sepium. Commonwealth Forestry Review 66: 31–48Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Huxley PA (1983a) Considerations when experimenting with changes in plant spacing. ICRAF Working Paper No. 15Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Huxley PA (1983a) The role of trees in agroforestry: some comments. In: Huxley PA, ed, Plant Research and Agroforestry, pp 257–270. ICRAF, Nairobi, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Huxley PA (1985) The basis of selection, management and evaluation of multipurpose trees — an overview. In: Cannell MGR and Jackson JE, eds, Attributes of Trees as Crop Plants, pp 13–35. Natural Environment Research Council, Huntingdon, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Huxley PA (1986) Methodology for the exploration and assessment of multipurpose trees. Section 4, Part 4E: Plant spacing. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya, pp 36Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    IITA (1981) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Annual Report for 1980. Ibadan NigeriaGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jama B, Getahun A, Ngugi D and Macklin B (1988) Leucaena alley cropping for the Kenya coast. In: Prinsley RT and Swift MJ, eds, Amelioration of Soil by Trees, pp 155–165. London, Commonwealth SecretariatGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kan BT and Mulongoy K (1987) Gliricidia sepium as a source of green manure in an alley cropping system. Gliricidia sepium: management and improvement. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association Special Publication 87–01, Turrialba, Costa Rica, pp 44–49Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Karim AB (1987) Alley cropping studies in the uplands of Sierra Leone. DPhill thesis, Oxford Forestry Institute, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, 271 ppGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Linn CS and Morse PM (1975) A compact design for spacing experiments. Biometrics 31: 661–671Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Macklin B, Jama B, Kedir R and Getuhan A (1989) Results of Alley cropping with Leuceana leucocephala and Zea mays at the Kenya coast. Leuceana Research Report 9: 61–64Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Odell RT, Dijkerman JC, van Vuure W, Melsted SW, Beavers AH, Sutton PM,Kurtz LT and Miedema R (1974) Characteristics, classification, and adaption of soils in selected areas in Sierra Leone, West Africa. Agricultural Experimental Station, College of Agriculture, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Bulletin 748Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Okigbo BN (1989) Alley farming in the humid and sub-humid tropics. Proceedings International Workshop, IITA, March 1986, Ibadan, Nigeria, pp 2–5Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Salazar A and Palm CA (1987) Screening of Leguminous trees for alley cropping on acid soils of the humid tropics. Gliricidia sepium: management and improvement. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association Special Publication 87–01, Turrialba, Costa Rica. pp 61–67Google Scholar
  21. 31.
    Savory R and Breen JA (1979) The production of Leuceana leucocephala in Malawi. FAO MLW/75/020, FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yantasath K, Supatanakul W, Ungivichian I, Chamsawad S, Chantrasiri S, Patanavibue S, Hyakitkosol C, Prompetchara S, Pithakarnop N and Chalermklin P (1985) Spacing trials of nitrogen fixing trees. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Report 3: 49–50Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yoda K, Kira T, Ogawa H and Hozumi K (1963) Self-thinning in overcrowded pure stands under cultivated and natural conditions. Journal of Biology, Osaka City University 14: 107–129Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. B. Karim
    • 1
  • P. S. Savill
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Botany, Fourah Bay CollegeUniversity of Sierra LeoneFreetownSierra Leone
  2. 2.Department of Plant SciencesOxford Forestry InstituteOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations