Biodiversity & Conservation

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 493–502 | Cite as

The SLOSS dilemma: a butterfly case study

  • Arturo Baz
  • Antonio Garcia-Boyero
Papers

Butterfly species richness is examined on simulated archipelagoes of 2, 3, 4 and 5 holm oak forest fragments in the Guadalajara Province (central Spain). It is shown that there are more species on several small ‘islands’ than on a single island. Also, species number increases with the number of fragments that form the archipelago, and with the average distance between islands within the archipelago. Thus, we conclude, at least for butterflies in a system of fragmented holm oak forests in central Iberia, that the best strategy in order to maximize the conservation of species richness is the creation of a net of some small and scattered reserves.

Keywords

SLOSS butterflies simulated archipelagoes average distance central Spain 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Balleto, E. and Casale, A. (1991) Mediterranean insect conservation. In The Conservation of Insects and their Habitats (N.M. Collins and J.A. Thomas, eds.) pp. 121–42. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  2. Baz, A. (1985) Ecología y faunística de las Mariposas de la comarca madrileña del rio Henares. Alcalá de Henares, Spain: M.Sc. thesis, Universidad de Alcalá.Google Scholar
  3. Baz, A. and García-Boyero, A. (1995) The effects of forest fragmentation on butterfly communities in central Spain. J. Biogeogr. (in press).Google Scholar
  4. Burkey, T.V. (1989) Extinction in nature reserves. The effect of fragmentation and the importance of migration between reserve fragments. Oikos 55, 75–81.Google Scholar
  5. Dennis, R.L.H. and Williams, W.R. (1995) Implications of biogeographical structures for the conservation of European butterflies. In Ecology and Conservation of Butterflies (A.S. Pullin, ed.) pp. 213–29. London: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  6. Diamond, J.M. (1975) The island dilemma: Lessons of modern biogeographic studies for the design of natural reserves. Biol. Conserv. 7, 129–45.Google Scholar
  7. Diamond, J.M. (1976) Island biogeography and conservation: Strategy and limitations. Science 193, 1027–9.Google Scholar
  8. Fahrig, J. and Merriam, G. (1985) Habitat patch connectivity and population survival. Ecology 66, 1762–8.Google Scholar
  9. Game, M. and Peterken, G.F. (1984) Nature reserve selection strategies in the woodland of central Lincolnshire, England. Biol. Conserv. 29, 137–81.Google Scholar
  10. Gilpin, M.E. (1988) A comment on Quinn and Hastings: extinction in subdivided habitats. Conserv. Biol. 2, 290–2.Google Scholar
  11. Hubbell, S.P. and Wright, S.J. (1983) Stochastic extinction and reserve size: a focal species approach. Oikos 41, 466–76.Google Scholar
  12. Kudrna, O. (1986) Aspects of the conservation of Butterflies in Europe. In: Butterflies of Europe, vol. 8. (O. Kudrna, ed.). Aula-Verlag, Wiesbaden.Google Scholar
  13. Jarvinen, O. (1982) Conservation of endangered plant populations: single large or several small reserves. Oikos 38, 301–7.Google Scholar
  14. Lahti, T. and Ranta, E. (1985) The SLOSS principle and conservation practice: An example. Oikos 44, 369–70.Google Scholar
  15. Lahti, T. and Ranta, E. (1986) Island biogeography and conservation: a reply to Murphy and Wilcox. Oikos 47, 388–9.Google Scholar
  16. Margules, C.R., Higgs, A.J. and Rafe, R.E. (1982) Modern biogeographic theory: are there any lessons for nature reserve design? Biol. Conserv. 24, 115–28.Google Scholar
  17. Munguira, M.L. (1995) Conservation of butterfly habitats and diversity in European Mediterranean countries. In Ecology and Conservation of Butterflies (A.S. Pullin, ed.) pp. 277–89. London: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  18. Murphy, D.D. and Wilcox, B.A. (1986) On island biogeography and conservation. Oikos 47, 385–7.Google Scholar
  19. Pollard, E. (1977) A method for assessing changes in the abundance of butterflies. Biol. Conserv. 12, 115–34.Google Scholar
  20. Simberloff, D. (1986) Design of nature reserves. In Wildlife Conservation Evaluation (M.B. Usher. ed.) pp. 315–37. London: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  21. Simberloff, D. and Abele, L.G. (1976) Island biogeography theory and conservation practice. Science 191, 285–6.Google Scholar
  22. Simberloff, D. and Abele, L.G. (1982) Refuge design and island biogeography theory: Effects of fragmentation. Am. Nat. 120, 41–50.Google Scholar
  23. Simberloff, D. and Abele, L.G. (1984) Conservation and obfuscation: subdivision of reserves. Oikos 42, 399–401.Google Scholar
  24. Simberloff, D. and Gotelli, N. (1984) Effects of insularization on plant species richness in the prairie-forest ecotone. Biol. Conserv. 29, 27–46.Google Scholar
  25. Spellerberg, I.F. (1991) Biogeographical basis of conservation. In The Scientific Management of Temperate Communities for Conservation (I.F. Spellerberg, F.B. Goldsmith and M.G. Morris, eds.) pp. 293–322. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.Google Scholar
  26. Terborgh, J.W. (1976) Island biogeography and conservation: strategy and limitations. Science 193, 1029–30.Google Scholar
  27. Viejo, J.L. (1984) Estudio faunístico de los ropalóceros del quejigar supramediterráneo de Madrid. SHILAP Rvta. Lep 12, 135–40.Google Scholar
  28. Wilcox, B.A. and Murphy, D.D. (1985) Conservation strategy: the effects of fragmentation on extinction. Am Nat. 125, 879–87.Google Scholar
  29. Wilson, E.O. and Willis, E.O. (1975) Applied biogeography. In Ecology and Evolution of Communities (M.L. Cody and J.M. Diamond, eds.) pp. 523–34. Cambridge, MS: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arturo Baz
    • 1
  • Antonio Garcia-Boyero
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Biología AnimalUniversidad de AlcaláMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations