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Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 49–56 | Cite as

Agroforestry training: global trends and needs

  • Richard F. Fisher
Keynote Paper
  • 48 Downloads

Abstract

A major worldwide trend toward the use of agroforestry and other sustainable agricultural systems has heightened the need for training. Such training is currently underway on every continent. This paper addresses the general principles and practices of training in agroforestry focusing on who needs training, what training is required, and designing training programs. The breadth and depth of training required by the various clientele groups — villagers, politicians, technicians, and professionals — are quite different. Politicians require broad but rather shallow training in agroforestry making them aware of the physical and biological constraints, as well as the social and economic aspects of agroforestry. Villagers require applied, hands-on training but teaching principles also enables them to develop and modify their own systems. Technicians and professionals both need more in-depth and thorough training consisting of both principles and practices. Spaid's approach to training involves the 4-D program: Define, Design, Develop and Deliver. Another model for training, the critical events model, emphasizes the need for feedback and evaluation in every stage of the training program. If a series of well-defined steps is followed, valuable, efficient, effective training programs that further the understanding and practice of agroforestry can be a reality.

Keywords

Training Program General Principle Agricultural System Critical Event Economic Aspect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

  1. Bawden RJ, Macadam RD, Packham YJ and Valentine I (1984) Systems thinking and practices in the education of agriculturists. Agric Systems 13: 205–225Google Scholar
  2. Huxley PA (1987) A combined systems, case study approach for agroforestry training. In Zulberti E (ed), Professional Education in Agroforestry, pp 122–127. International Council for Research in Agroforestry, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  3. Kearsley G (1982) Costs, Benefits and Productivity in Training Systems. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Reading, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  4. Moris J (1981) Managing Induced Rural Development. International Development Institute. Bloomington, IndianaGoogle Scholar
  5. Nadler L (1982) Designing Training Programs. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Reading, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  6. Spaid OA (1986) The Consummate Trainer. Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs, New JerseyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard F. Fisher
    • 1
  1. 1.Utah State UniversityLoganUSA

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