Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 125–132 | Cite as

A case-control study of risk factor for renal cell cancer in northern Italy

  • Renato Talamini
  • Anna E. Barón
  • Salvatore Barra
  • Ettore Bidoli
  • Carlo La Vecchia
  • Eva Negri
  • Diego Serraino
  • Silvia Franceschi
Research Papers

A hospital-based case-control study of renal cell cancer was conducted in northern Italy betwen 1986 and 1989, with 240 cases of renal cell cancer (150 males and 90 females), and 665 controls (445 males and 220 females) chosen on the basis of age, sex, and area of residence. No associations were found between renal cell cancer and: body mass index (BMI); number of cigarettes smoked; age at starting to smoke; years of smoking; consumption of wine, beer, spirits, coffee, decaffeinated coffee; tea; intake of animal protein, fruits, and vegetables; various resproductive factors; hormonal use; sexual habits; sexually transmitted diseases; or selected occupational exposures. The odds ratio (OR) was above unity in smokers (OR=1.34 for ≥15 cigarettes/day), but the trends in risk with dose or duration were not statistically significant. Significant positive associations were found between renal cell cancer and sources of fat intake, especially margarine (OR for highest vs lowest intake = 1.71), and oils (OR=1.89) whereas carrot intake showed a negative association (OR=0.62). Also, a history of nephrolithiasis and multiple episodes of cystitis showed weak positive associations (OR=2.00, 95 percent confidence interval (CI) 1.07–3.73; and OR=1.60, 95 percent CI 0.95–2.70, respectively).

Address reprint requests to Dr Talamini. The work was conducted with the contribution of the Italian Association for Cancer Research, Milan, Italy and the CNR (Italian National Research Council) Applied Projects “Oncology” (Contract n. 85.02209.44).

Key words

Diet obesity occupation renal cell cancer smoking 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Morrison AS, Cole P. Urinary tract cancer. In: Schottenfeld D and Fraumeni JFJr, eds. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1982; 54: 925–37.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Devesa SS, Silverman DT, Young JLJr, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality trends among whites in the United States, 1947–84. JNCI 1987; 79: 701–70.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ries LG, Pollack ES, Young JLJr. Cancer patient survival: surveillance, epidemiology and end results program 1973–79. JNCI 1983: 70: 693–705.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Decarli A, LaVecchia C, Cislaghi C, Fasoli M, Mezzanotte G, Negri E. Cancer mortality in Italy, 1955–1979: effects of age,, birth cohort and period of death. Monografie Lega Italiana per la Lotta Contro i Tumori (Milano) 1986; 4: 54–5.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Levi F, Maisonneuve P, Filiberti R, LaVecchia C, Boyle P. Cancer incidence and mortality in Europe. Med Soc Prev 1989; 2 (Suppl): 1–83.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cislaghi C, Decarli A, LaVecchia C, Laverda N, Mezzanotte G, Smans M. Data, Statistics and Maps on Cancer Mortality, Italy 1975–1977. Bologna: Pitagora Editrice, 1986: 458–67.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    McLaughlin JK, Schuman LM. Epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma. In: Lilienfeld AM, ed. Reviews in Cancer Epidemiology. Vol. 2. New York: Elsevier, 1983: 171–210.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wynder EL, Mabuchi K, Whitmore WFJr. Epidemiology of adenocarcinoma of the kidney. JNCI 1974; 53: 1619–34.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    McLaughlin JK, Mandel JS, Blot WJ, Schuman LM, Mehl ES, Fraumeni JFJr. A population-based case-control study of renal cell carcinoma. JNCI 1984; 72: 275–84.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kahn HA. The Dorn study of smoking and mortality among U.S. veterans: report on eight and one-half years of observation. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 1966: 19: 1–27.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hammond EC. Smoking in relation to the death rates of one million men and women. Natl Cancer Inst Mongr 1966; 19: 127–204.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Weir JM, Dunn JGJr. Smoking and mortality: a prospective study. Cancer 1970; 25: 105–12.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bennington JL, Laubscher FA. Epidemiologic studies on carcinoma of the kidney. I. Association of renal adeno-carcinoma with smoking. Cancer 1968; 21: 1069–71.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brownson RC. A case-control study of renal cell carcinoma in relation to occupation, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Arch Environ Health 1988; 43: 238–41.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Doll R, Peto R. Mortality in relation to smoking: 20 years' observations on male British doctors. Br Med J 1976; 2: 1525–36.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schwartz D, Flamant R, Lellouch J, Denoix PF. Results of a French survey on the role of tobacco, particularly inhalation, in different cancer sites. JNCI 1961; 26: 1085–108.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Armstrong B, Garrod A, Doll R. A retrospective study of renal cancer with special reference to coffee and animal protein consumption. Br J Cancer 1976; 33: 127–36.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yu MC, Mack TM, Hanisch R, Cicioni C, Henderson BE. Cigarette smoking, obesity, diuretic use, and coffee consumption as risk factors for renal cell carcinoma. JNCI 1986; 77: 351–56.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    McCredie M, Ford JM, Stewart JH. Risk factors for cancer of the renal parenchyma. Int J Cancer 1988; 42: 13–6.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goodman MT, Morgenstern H, Wynder EL. A case-control study of factors affecting the development of renal cell cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1986; 124: 926–41.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jensen OM, Knudsen JB, McLaughlin JK, Sørensen BL. The Copenhagen case-control study of renal pelvis and ureter cancer: role of smoking and occupational exposures. Int J Cancer 1988; 41: 557–61.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ross RK, Paganini-Hill A, Landolph J, Gerkins V, Henderson BE. Analgesics, cigarette smoking, and other risk factors for cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter. Cancer Res 1989; 49: 1045–8.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    McCredie M, Stewart JH, Ford JM, MacLennan RA. Phenacetin-containing analgesics and cancer of the bladder or renal pelvis in women. Br J Urol 1983; 55: 220–4.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Asal NR, Geyer JR, Risser DR, Lee ET, Kadamani S, Cherng N. Risk factors in renal cell carcinoma. I. Methodology, demographics, tobacco beverage use, and obesity. Cancer Dect Prev 1988; 11: 359–77.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Whittemore AS, Paffenbarger RSJr, Anderson K, Lee JE. Early precursors of site-specific cancers in college men and women. JNCI 1985; 74: 43–51.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hinds MW, Kolonel LN, Lee J, Hirohara T. Associations between cancer incidence and alcohol/cigarette consumption among five ethnic groups in Hawaii. Br J Cancer 1980; 41: 929–40.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    McLaughlin JK, Blot WJ, Mehl ES, Stewart PA, Venable FS, Fraumeni JFJr. Petroleum-related employment and renal cell cancer. J Occup Med 1985; 27: 672–4.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Redmond CK, Ciocco A, Lloyd JW, et al. Longterm mortality study of steel-workers. VI. Mortality from malignant neoplasms among coke oven workers. J Occup Med 1972; 14: 621–9.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kolonel LN. Association of cadmium with renal cancer. Cancer 1976; 37: 1782–7.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Maclure M. Asbestos and renal adenocarcinoma: a casecontrol study. Environ Res 1987; 42: 353–61.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hanis NM, Shallenberger LG, Donaleski DL, et al. A retrospective mortality study of workers in three major U.S. refineries and chemical plants. J Occup Med 1985; 27: 283–92.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cooperativa Nuova Alimentazione (Co.N.Al.). ABC per l'Educazione Alimentare. Manuale. Milan: CLESAV, 1983.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fidanza F, Liguori G. Nutrizione Umana. Napoli: Idelson, 1984: 677–726.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Breslow NE, Day NE. Statistical Methods in Cancer Research: the Analysis of Case-control Studies. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1980; IARC publication no. 32.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mantel N, Haenszel W. Statistical aspects of analysis of data from retrospective studies of disease. JNCI 1959; 22: 719–48.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    GLIM System, Rel. 3. Oxford: Numerical Algorithms Group.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mantel N. chi-square tests with one degree of freedom: extension of the Mantel-Haenszel procedure. J Am Stat Assoc 1963; 58: 690–700.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Maclure KM, MacMahon B. A case-control study of renal adenocarcinoma (Abstract). Am J Epidemiol 1985; 122: 520.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Negri E, Pagano R, Decarli A, LaVecchia C. Body weight and prevalence of chronic diseases. J Epidemiol Community Health 1988; 42: 24–9.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Armstrong B, Doll R. Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices. Int J Cancer 1975; 15: 617–31.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hirayama T. Diet and cancer. Nutr Cancer 1979; 1: 67–81.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Middleton B, Byers T, Marshall J, Graham S. Dictary vitamin A and cancer—A multisite case-control study. Nutr Cancer 1986; 8: 107–16.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pisani P, Berrino F, Macaluso M, Pastorino U, Crosignani P, Baldasseroni A. Carrots, green vegetables and lung cancer: a case-control study. Int J Epidemiol 1986; 15: 463–8.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Willett WC, Polk BF, Underwood BA, et al. Relation of serum vitamins A and E and carotenoids to the risk of cancer. N Engl J Med 1984; 310: 430–4.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    LaVecchia C, Negri E, Decarli A, D'Avanzo B, Franceschi S. A case-control study of diet and gastric cancer in Northern Italy. Int J Cancer 1987; 40: 484–9.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Peto R, Doll R, Buckley JD, Sporn MB. Can dietary betacarotene materially reduce human cancer rates? Nature 1981; 290: 201–8.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Rapid Communications of Oxford Ltd 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Renato Talamini
  • Anna E. Barón
  • Salvatore Barra
  • Ettore Bidoli
  • Carlo La Vecchia
  • Eva Negri
  • Diego Serraino
  • Silvia Franceschi

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations