First data on resistance mechanisms of Varroa jacobsoni (OUD.) against tau-fluvalinate
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- Hillesheim, E., Ritter, W. & Bassand, D. Exp Appl Acarol (1996) 20: 283. doi:10.1007/BF00052878
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In 1991, the first losses of efficacy of tau-fluvalinate against the honeybee ectoparasite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. were recorded in Sicily. Since then, diminished efficacy with available pyrethroid treatments has been encountered in many regions of Italy. The aim of this study was to investigate the type of resistance in V. jacobsoni to the pyrethroid tau-fluvalinate by focusing on metabolic resistance mechanisms (detoxication). After developing a suitable application method, two synergists were used: piperonyl butoxide (PBO), as an inhibitor of the microsomal monooxygenases of the cytochrome P450 complex and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF), which blocks esterases. A significant decrease in the LC50 values of the susceptible and of the resistant mite strains after the application of PBO was observed. A slight decrease of the LC50 values was also observed after the application of DEF. However, this decrease was not significant. These results indicate that the resistance of Varroa mites to tau-fluvalinate can partly be explained by an increased detoxication due to the monooxygenases in the P450 system, which is blocked by PBO. Esterases seems to play a negligible role. Whether glutathione-S-transferases are involved, is still unknown, but other mechanisms, such as the modification of the binding sites and/or reduced uptake might be involved as well.