Eating frequency—a neglected risk factor for colon cancer?
- 73 Downloads
Eating frequency was examined in relation to risk of cancer of the colon and rectum in a population-based case-control study conducted in Stockholm, Sweden in 1986–88. In the present analysis, 328 cases and 500 controls were included. The adjusted relative risk (RR) of colon cancer per daily eating occasion was 1.2 (95 percent confidence interval [CI]=1.1–1.4, adjusted for year of birth, sex, intake of energy, fat, protein, and fiber, browning of meat surface, physical activity, and body mass index). The corresponding RR for rectal cancer was 1.0 (CI=0.9–1.2). The frequency of eating snacks was related to risk of colon cancer (RR per snack = 1.6, CI=1.2–1.9), while the frequency of eating meals (breakfast, lunch, or dinner) was not (RR per meal = 0.8, CI=0.6–1.1). The results are consistent with findings in two other case-control studies in which eating frequency was found to be a risk factor for colon cancer.
Key wordsColon cancer diet meal frequency rectal cancer Sweden
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Parkin DM, Läärä E, Muir CS. Estimates of the worldwide frequency of sixteen major cancers in 1980. Int J Cancer 1988; 41: 184–97.Google Scholar
- 2.Doll R, Peto R. The causes of cancer: quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today. JNCI 1981; 66: 1191–308.Google Scholar
- 3.Rogers AE, Longnecker MP. Dietary and nutritional influences on cancer: a review of epidemiologic and experimental data. Lab Invest 1988; 59: 729–59.Google Scholar
- 4.Potter JD, McMichael AJ. Diet and cancer of the colon and rectum: a case-control study. JNCI 1986; 76: 557–69.Google Scholar
- 5.Young TB, Wolf DA. Case-control study of proximal and distal colon cancer and diet in Wisconsin. Int J Cancer 1988; 42: 167–75.Google Scholar
- 6.Gerhardssonde Verdier M, Hagman U, Steineck G, Rieger A, Norell SE. Diet, body mass and colerectal cancer: a case-referent study in Stockholm. Int J Cancer 1990; 46: 832–8.Google Scholar
- 7.Bergström L, Kylberg E, Hagman U, Eriksson H-B, Bruce Å. The use of the Swedish national food administration nutrient data base for information on nutrient values of food items. Vår Föda 1991.Google Scholar
- 8.Gerhardssonde Verdier M, Hagman U, Peters RK, Steineck G, Övervik E. Meat, cooking methods and colorectal cancer: a case-referent study in Stockholm. Int J Cancer 1991; 49: 520–5.Google Scholar
- 9.Gerhardssonde Verdier M, Steineck G, Hagman U, Rieger Å, Norell SE. Physical activity and colon cancer: a case-referent study in Stockholm. Int J Cancer 1990; 46: 985–9.Google Scholar
- 10.Breslow NE, Day NE. Statistical Methods in Cancer Research: Vol. 1. The Analysis of Case-control Studies. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1980; IARC Sci. Pub. No. 32.Google Scholar
- 11.Statistics and Epidemiology Research Corporation. Epidemiological Graphics, Estimation, and Testing Package. Seattle, WA: SERC, 1991.Google Scholar
- 12.Willett WC, Sampson L, Stampfer MJ, et al. Reproducibility and validity of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 122: 51–65.Google Scholar
- 13.Hill MJ. Metabolic epidemiology of colorectal cancer. Ann Acad Med 1987; 16: 402–7.Google Scholar
- 14.Owen RW, Thompson MH, Hill MJ, Wilpart M, Mainguet P, Roberfroid M. The importance of the ratio of lithocholic to deoxycholic acid in large bowel carcinogenesis. Nutr Cancer 1987; 9: 67–71.Google Scholar
- 15.Grundy D. Gastrointestinal Motility: the Integration of Physiologic Mechanisms. Lancaster, UK: MTP Press Ltd, 1985.Google Scholar
- 16.Holdstock DJ, Misiewicz JJ, Smith T, Rowlands EN. Propulsion (mass movements) in the human colon and its relationship to meals and somatic activity. Gut 1970; 11: 91–9.Google Scholar
- 17.Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Vuskan V, et al. Nibbling versus gorging: metabolic advantages of increased meal frequency. N Engl J Med 1989; 321: 929–34.Google Scholar
- 18.Lowenfels AB. Is increased cholesterol excretion the link between low serum cholesterol and colon cancer? Nutr Cancer 1983; 4: 280–4.Google Scholar
- 19.Robert Bruce. Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, Canada. Personal Communication, 19 September 1991.Google Scholar