Systematic Parasitology

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 89–117 | Cite as

The life-cycle and morphology of Trichobilharzia australis n.sp. (Digenea: Schistosomatidae) from the nasal blood vessels of the black duck (Anas superciliosa) in Australia, with a review of the genus Trichobilharzia

  • D. Blair
  • K.S. Islam


The life-cycle of Trichobilharzia australis n.sp. from northern Australia is outlined and the morphology of each stage described. Adult worms occur in the nasal blood vessels of the black duck (Anas superciliosa Gmelin, 1789). Cercariae develop in a lymnaeid snail, Austropeplea vinosa (Adams & Angus, 1864) (= Lymnaea lessoni Deshayes in part).

In order to compare T. australis with related forms, the genus Trichobilharzia is reviewed and characters discussed which have been used to distinguish between species. Morphological features of miracidia and cercariae are generally of little use in this respect. Adult worms offer several morphological features which are of some value. Principal among these are the shape of the egg in the female and the point of reunion of the caeca in the male. More emphasis is placed on life-cycle details in distinguishing between species. These details include the family to which the snail host belongs and the site occupied within the final host. An annotated key is provided to species for which life-cycles are known using life-cycle details as principal characters. Morphological details of the adult are used as secondary characters. As the life-cycles of many species are unknown, a second annotated key, using primarily morphological features, is provided to distinguish between these. A number of described species are regarded as species inquirendae.

T. australis is closest to T. aureliani Fain, 1955, a species described from the nasal blood vessels of birds in central Africa.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ameel, D.J., Van Der Woude, A. & Cort, W.W. (1953) Studies on the miracidium of the genus Trichobilharzia with special reference to the germinal cells. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 49, 40–42.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, P.A., Nowosielski, J.W. & Croll, N.A. (1976) The emergence of cercariae of Trichobilharzia ocellata and its relationship to the activity of its snail host Lymnaea stagnalis. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 54, 1481–1487.Google Scholar
  3. Azimov, D.A. (1975) [Schistosomes of animals and man.] Taskhent, Uzbekistan, Izdatel'stvo ‘FAN’. 152 pp. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  4. Azimov, D.A. (1977) [The biology of Trichobilharzia ocellata in Uzbekistan.] Uzbekskii Biologischeskii Zhurnal, 1977, no. 3, 44–46. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  5. Bailenger, J. & Neuzil, E. (1953) Nouvelles techniques d'examen des helminthes: Fixation; coloration; montage. Annales de Parasitologie humaine et comparee, 28, 392–398.Google Scholar
  6. Basch, P.F. (1966) The life-cycle of Trichobilharzia brevis n.sp., an avian Schistosome from Malaya. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 27, 242–251.Google Scholar
  7. Baugh, S.C. (1963) Contributions to our knowledge of digenetic trematodes VI. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 22, 303–315.Google Scholar
  8. Baugh, S.C. (1978) The miracidium of Trichobilharzia indica Baugh, 1963 and its hatching. Revista lberica di Parasitologia, 38, 73–93.Google Scholar
  9. Bayssade-Dufour, C. (1977) Différences au niveau des sensilles entres les cercarias africaines et américaines de Schistosoma mansoni, agent de bilharziose intestinale humaine. Comptes Rendus des seances de L'Académie des Sciences, Paris, 284, Série D, 191–193.Google Scholar
  10. Bayssade-Dufour, C., Albaret, J.L., Picot, H. & Deniau, M. (1980) Les organites argyrophiles superficiels des formes larvaires infestantes de Schistosoma intercalatum. Annales de Parasitologie humaine et comparee, 55, 249–252.Google Scholar
  11. Bayssade-Dufour, C. & Ow-Yang, C.K. (1975) The sensory receptors of two cercariae from Malaysia: Trichobilharzia brevis (Schistosomatidae) and Haplorchis pumilio (Heterophyidae). Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 6, 338–342.Google Scholar
  12. Blair, D. & Copeman, D.B. (1977) Schistosome dermatitis in North Queensland. Medical Journal of Australia, 40.Google Scholar
  13. Blair, D. & Finlayson, M.F. (1981) Observations on the habitat and biology of a lymnaeid snail, Austropeplea vinosa (Gastropoda; Pulmonata), an intermediate host for avian schistosomes in tropical Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 32, 757–767.Google Scholar
  14. Blair, D. & Ottesen, P. (1979) Nasal schistosomiasis in Australian anatids. Journal of Parasitology, 65, 982–984.Google Scholar
  15. Brackett, S. (1940) Studies on Schistosome dermatitis VI. Notes on the behaviour of Schistosome cercariae. American Journal of Hygiene, 31, 64–73.Google Scholar
  16. Brackett, S. (1942) Five new species of avian schistosomes from Wisconsin and Michigan with the life cycle of Gigantobilharzia gyrauli (Brackett, 1940). Journal of Parasitology, 28, 25–42.Google Scholar
  17. Broek, Van Den, E. (1965) Some recent cases of avian schistosomiasis and Schistosome dermatitis in the Netherlands. Tropical and Geographical Medicine, 17, 229–235.Google Scholar
  18. Brumpt, E. (1930) Cycle évolutif complet de Schistosoma bovis. Infection naturelle en Corse et infection expérimentale de Bullinus contortus. Annales de Parasitologie humaine et comparee, 8, 17–50.Google Scholar
  19. Brumpt, E. (1931) Cercaria ocellata, determinant la dermatite des nageurs, provient d'une bilharzie des canards. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Académie des Sciences, 193, 612–614.Google Scholar
  20. Bykhovskaya-Pavlovskaya, I.E. & Ryzhikov, K.M. (1958) [Schistosomatids (Schistosomatidae Looss, 1899) in Anseriformes of Yakutia.] Parazitologicheskii Sbornik Zoologicheskogo Muzela Akademii Nauk SSSR, 18, 283–294. (In Russian, French summary pp. 293–294.)Google Scholar
  21. Byrd, E.E. (1956) Pseudobilharziella littlebi n.sp., a new blood fluke from the chestnut-sided warbler, Dendroica pennsylvanica (Linnaeus). Association of Southeastern Biologists Bulletin, 3, 9 (abstract).Google Scholar
  22. Byrd, E.E. (1957) Bilharziella littlebi (Byrd, 1956), a blood fluke (Digenea: Schistosomatidae: Bilharziellinae) from the chestnut-sided warbler, Dendroica pennsylvanica (Linnaeus). Journal of Parasitology, 43, 374–376.Google Scholar
  23. Cassone, J., Bayssade-Dufour, C., Albaret, J.L. & Jourdane, J. (1978) Variations chétotaxiques des cercaires d'une souche humaine de Schistosoma mansoni par passages successifs sur souris. Annales de Parasitologie humaine et comparée, 53, 387–391.Google Scholar
  24. Chernogorenko, M.I. & Boryak, Y.V. (1973) The biology of cercariae of Trichobilharzia ocellata La Val., 1854. Gidrobiologischeskii Zhurnal, 9, 104–108. (In Russian: English translation available as Hydrobiological Journal, 9(6), 87–90.)Google Scholar
  25. Chikami, A. (1961) [Studies on Trichobilharzia ocellata (La Valette, 1855) in Japan.] Japanese Journal of Parasitology, 10, 106–118 (In Japanese, English summary p. 118).Google Scholar
  26. Cort, W.W. (1950) Studies on schistosome dermatitis. XI. Status of knowledge after more than twenty years. American Journal of Hygiene, 52, 251–307.Google Scholar
  27. Cort, W.W. & Talbot, S.B. (1936) Studies on schistosome dermatitis. III. Observations on the behaviour of the dermatitis-producing schistosome cercariae. American Journal of Hygiene, 23, 385–396.Google Scholar
  28. Dönges, J. (1964) Der Lebenzyklus von Posthodiplostomum cuticola (v. Nordmann, 1832) Dubois, 1936 (Trematoda; Diplostomatidae). Zeitschrifi für Parasitenkunde, 24, 169–248.Google Scholar
  29. Dönges, J. (1974) The life-cycle of Euclinostomum heterostomum (Rudolphi, 1809) (Trematoda; Clinostomatidae). International Journal for Parasitology, 4, 79–90.Google Scholar
  30. Dubois, G. (1929) Les cercaires de la région de Neuchâtel. Bulletin de la Societe Neuchdteloise des Sciences Naturelles, 53, n.s. 2, 3–177.Google Scholar
  31. Dutt, S.C. (1965) The occurrence of Trichobilharzia physellae in India. Science and Culture, 31, 380.Google Scholar
  32. Edwards, D.K. & Jansch, M.E. (1955) Two new species of dermatitis producing schistosome cercariae from Cultus Lake, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 33, 182–194.Google Scholar
  33. Ejsmont, L. (1929) [On two schistosomatid genera from birds.] Bullétin International de l'Académie Polonaise des Sciences et des Lettres, Classe des Sciences Mathimatiques et Naturelles, Série B: Sciences Naturelles. Cracovie (II), (8–10), 389–403. (In Polish).Google Scholar
  34. Emmet, L. (1947) Beiträge zur Biologie und Morphologie der ‘Cercaria ocellata’. Zentralblat für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde and Infektionskrankheiten. Erste Abteilung, Originale, 152, 285–291.Google Scholar
  35. Ercolani, G.B. (1881) Dell'adattamento delta specie all'ambiente. Nuove ricerche sulla storia genetica dei trematodi. 98 pp. Bologna.Google Scholar
  36. Fain, A. (1955a) Sur une furcocercaire du group ‘Ocellata’ produisant expérimentalement la ‘dermatite des nageurs’ a Astrida (Ruanda-Urundi). Annales de la Societe beige de Medecine tropicale, 35, 701–707.Google Scholar
  37. Fain, A. (1955b) Recherches sur les schistosomes d'Oiseaux au Ruanda-Urundi (Congo beige). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines, 51, 373–387.Google Scholar
  38. Fain, A. (1955c) Une nouvelle bilharzoise des oiseaux: La trichobilharziose nasale. Remarque sur l'importance des schistosomes d'oiseaux en pathologie humaine. Annales de la Societe beige de Medecine tropicale, 35, 323–327.Google Scholar
  39. Fain, A. (1956) Les schistosomes d'oiseaux du genre Trichobilharzia Skrjabin et Zakharov, 1920 au Ruanda Urundi. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines, 54, 147–178.Google Scholar
  40. Fain, A. (1959) Un nouveau schistosome du genre Trichobilharzia dans les fosses nasales du canard nain. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines, 60, 227–232.Google Scholar
  41. Farley, J. (1971) A review of the family Schistosomatidae: excluding the genus Schistosoma from mammals. Journal of Helminthology, 45, 289–320.Google Scholar
  42. Ishida, H. (1960a) [Studies on the dermatitis-producing Cercaria mieensis n.sp. in man. I. On the eggs of an avian schistosoma newly found in Querquedula crecca crecca in Nagashima, Mie Prefecture.] Japanese Journal of Parasitology, 9, 717–723 (In Japanese, English summary p. 723).Google Scholar
  43. Ishida, H. (1960b) [Studies on the dermatitis-producing Cercaria mieensis n.sp. in man. II. On Cercaria mieensis n.sp. developed from eggs of an avian schistosome.] Japanese Journal of Parasitology, 9, 724–729. (In Japanese, English summary p. 729).Google Scholar
  44. Islam, K.S. & Copeman, D.B. (1980) Notes on the life-cycle of Trichobilharzia farocellata [sic] Johnston and Simpson, 1939. In: Programme and Abstracts of papers presented at the 24th conference of the Australian Society for Parasitology, Flinders University, South Australia, 19–21 May 1980.Google Scholar
  45. Ito, J. (1960) Studies on the morphology and life cycle of Pseudobilharziella corvi Yamaguti, 1941 (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae). Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology, 13, 53–58.Google Scholar
  46. Ito, J. (1978) Studies on six species of cercariae from Austropeplea ollula in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Japanese Journal of Parasitology, 27, 171–184.Google Scholar
  47. Ito, Y. (1960a) [Studies on Trichobilharzia corvi (Yamaguti, 1941). I. Morphological studies on the adult.] Japanese Journal of Parasitology, 9, 556–563. (In Japanese, English summary p. 563.).Google Scholar
  48. Ito, Y. (1960b) [Studies on Trichobilharzia corvi (Yamaguti, 1941). 2. Studies on the structure of the eggs and miracidia.] Japanese Journal of Parasitology, 9, 564–574. (In Japanese, English summary p. 574).Google Scholar
  49. Kawanaka, M. (1978) On the resistance of Lymnaea snails to infection with some larval trematodes. I. Comparison of tissue reactions of the snails L. ollula and L. japonica, exposed to Trichobilharzia brevis or Fasciola sp. Japanese Journal of Parasitology, 27, 222 (abstract).Google Scholar
  50. Kilias, R. & Frick, W. (1964) Die Zwischenwirtsschnecken wichtiger einheimischer Haus- und Nutztierhelminthen. Angewandte Parasitologie, 5, 13–35.Google Scholar
  51. Kowalewski, M. (1896) Bilharzia polonica sp.nov. Sprostowania i uzupelnienia. (Studya helmintologiczne 4). Rosprawy Wydzialu Matematyczno-Przyrodniczego. Polska Akademja Umiejetności.sci. Kraków, 30 2 s. v. 10, 345–356.Google Scholar
  52. Kwo, E.H., Lie K.J. & Ow-Yang, C.K. (1970) Epidermal plates and papillae of miracidia in two dermatitis producing schistosomes in West Malaysia. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 1, 300–301.Google Scholar
  53. Lalitha, C.M. & Alwar, V.S. (1960) Parasites of domestic ducks (Anas boschas domesticus) in Madras. Indian Veterinary Journal, 37, 179–181.Google Scholar
  54. La Valette St. George, A.J.H. (1855) Symbolae ad trematodum evolutionis historiam. Dissertation, 38 pp. Berolini.Google Scholar
  55. Leite, A.C.R., Costa, H.M. De A. & Costa, J.O. (1978) Trichobilharzia jequitibaensis sp.n. (Trematoda, Schistosomatidae) in Cairina moschata domestica (Anatidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 38, 843–846.Google Scholar
  56. Leite, A.C.R., Costa, H.M. De A. & Costa, J.O. (1979) The life cycle of Trichobilharzia jequitibaensis Leite, Costa and Costa, 1978 (Trematoda, Schistosomatidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 39, 341–345.Google Scholar
  57. Liu, Z. & Bai, G. (1976) [On bird schistosomes from Jilin Province: Jilinobilharzia crecci gen.nov., sp.nov. (Schistosomatidae: Bilharziellinae) with a discussion on the taxonomy of the subfamily Bilharziellinae.] Acta Zoologica Sinica, 22, 385–392. (In Chinese, English summary pp. 390–392).Google Scholar
  58. Liu, Z., Chen, M., Jin, G., Tan, Y. & Yang, F. (1977) [A survey of the aetiological agent of paddy-field dermatitis in Ji'an Man, Jilin Province, with preliminary observations of the life history of Trichobilharzia fanensis sp.nov. (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae).] Acta Zoologica Sinica, 23, 161–174. (In Chinese, English summary p. 174).Google Scholar
  59. Macfarlane, D.G. & Macy, R.W. (1946) Cercaria oregonensis n.sp., a dermatitis-producing schistosome cercaria from the Pacific Northwest. Journal of Parasitology, 32, 281–285.Google Scholar
  60. McLeod, J.A. (1937) Two new schistosomatid trematodes from water birds. Journal of Parasitology, 10, 456–466.Google Scholar
  61. McLeod, J.A. & Little, G.E. (1942) Continued studies on cercarial dermatitis and the trematode family Schistosomatidae in Manitoba. Part I. Canadian Journal of Research, 20, (section D), 170–181.Google Scholar
  62. McMullen, D.B. & Beaver, P.C. (1945) Studies on schistosome dermatitis. IX. The life cycles of three dermatitis-producing schistosomes from birds and a discussion of the subfamily Bilharziellinae (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae). American Journal of Hygiene, 42, 128–154.Google Scholar
  63. Macy, R.W., Moore, D.J. & Price, W.S. Jr. (1955) Studies on dermatitis-producing schistosomes in the Pacific Northwest, with special reference to Trichobilharzia oregonensis. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 74, 235–251.Google Scholar
  64. Malek, E.A. (1961) The biology of mammalian and bird schistosomes. Bulletin of the Tulane Medical Faculty, 20, 181–207.Google Scholar
  65. Margono, S. (1968) Cercaria of Trichobilharzia brevis Basch, 1966 in Djakarta as a possible cause of schostosome dermatitis. Medical Journal of Malaya, 22, 306–312.Google Scholar
  66. Mathias, P. (1930) Sur Cercaria ocellata La Valette. Annales de Parasitologie humaine et comparée, 8, 151–160.Google Scholar
  67. Meyer, P.O. & Dubois, G. (1954) Dermatite humaine causée par des furcocercaires ocellées clans les bains publics de Zurich. Bulletin de la Society Neuchâteloise des Sciences Naturelles, 77, 81–110.Google Scholar
  68. Miller, H.M. (1926) Comparative studies on furcocercous cercariae. Illinois Biological Monographs, 10, 1–112.Google Scholar
  69. Misaki, S. (1960) [Studies on the fine structure of Cercariae of Trichobilharzia physellae (Talbot, 1936) and Trichobilharzia ocellata (La Valette, 1855)]. Japanese Journal of Parasitology, 9, 744–759 (In Japanese, English summary p. 759).Google Scholar
  70. Neuhaus, W. (1952a) Biologie und Entwicklung von Trichobilharzia szidati n.sp. (Trematoda, Schistosomatidae), einem Erreger von Dermatitis beim Menschen. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 15, 203–266.Google Scholar
  71. Neuhaus, W. (1952b) Der Einfluss des Zwischenwirtes auf die Gestalt der Cercarie von Trichobilharzia szidati Neuhaus, 1951 und ihre systematische Kennzeichnung. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 148, 275–285.Google Scholar
  72. Oda, T. (1973) Schistosome dermatitis in Japan. In: Progress of medical parasitology in Japan, Vol. 5. Morishita, K. et al. (Editors). pp. 5–63. Tokyo: Meguro Parasitological Museum.Google Scholar
  73. Pao, T.C. & Yung Y.L. (1957) [The discovery of an avian schistosome, Pseudobilharziella sp. (Family Schistosomatidae, Subfamily Bilharziellinae) in Chung-Ching, Szechwan Province, China.] Acta Zoologica Sinica, 9, 291–297 (In Chinese, English summary p. 296).Google Scholar
  74. Rees, F.G. (1932) An investigation into the occurrence, structure and life-histories of the trematode parasites of four species of Lymnaea (L. truncatula) (Müll.), L. peregra (Müll.), L. palustris (Müll.) and L. stagnalis (Linné), and Hydrobia jenkinsi (Smith) in Glamorgan and Monmouth. Proceedings of the Zoological Society, London, Pt. 1, 1–32.Google Scholar
  75. Richard, J. (1971) La chétotaxie des cercaires. Valeur systématique et phylétique. Memoires du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Nouvelle Série, Série A. Zoologie, 67, 1–179.Google Scholar
  76. Schell, S.C. (1959) Cercaria robinsonensis n.sp. and other schistosome cercariae occurring in the inland empire of the Pacific Northwest. Northwest Science, 33, 121–128.Google Scholar
  77. Schilder, F.A. (1947) Problems and Methoden der Biostatistik I. Biologisches Zentralblatt, 66, 186–197.Google Scholar
  78. Short, R.B. & Kunz, R.E. (1976) Patterns of argentophilic papillae of Schistosoma rodhaini and S. mansom cercariae. Journal of Parasitology, 62, 420–425.Google Scholar
  79. Short, R.B. & Menzel, M.Y. (1960) Chromosomes of nine species of schistosomes. Journal of Parasitology, 46, 273–287.Google Scholar
  80. Sinitzin, D.F. (1909) Studien über die Phylogenie der Trematoden. 2. Bucephalus v. Baer und Cercaria ocellata De la Vall. Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Zoologie, 94, 299–325.Google Scholar
  81. Skrjabin, K.I. (1951) [Trematodes of Animals and Man.] Volume 5. 624 pp. Moscow. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  82. Skrjabin, K.I. & Zakharov, N.P. (1920) Zwei neue Trematodengattungen aus den Blutgefdssen der Vögel. Izviestia Donskogo Veterinarnago Instituta, 2, 1–6 (In Russian, German summary pp. 5–6).Google Scholar
  83. Sluiters, J.F., Brussaard-Wüst, C.M. & Meuleman, E.A. (1980) The relationship between miracidial dose, production of cercariae, and reproductive activity of the host in the combination Trichobilharzia ocellata and Lymnaea stagnalis. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 63, 13–26.Google Scholar
  84. Spasskaya, L.P. (1953) A new schistosomatid from veins of water rails. Raboty po gel'mintologii K 75-Letiyu Akademika K.I. Skrjabina. Moscow 1953, pp. 685–687 (In Russian, English translation Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1966).Google Scholar
  85. Suzuki, N. & Kawanaka, M. (1980) Trichobilharzia brevis Basch, 1966, as a cause of an outbreak of cercarial dermatitis in Japan. Japanese Journal of Parasitology, 29, 1–11.Google Scholar
  86. Szidat, L. (1938) Pseudobilharziella filiformis n.sp. eine neue Vögelbilharzia as dem Höckerschwan Cygnus olor L. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 10, 535–544.Google Scholar
  87. Szidat, L. (1942) Was ist Cercaria ocellata La Valette? Morphologische and entwicklungsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen über den Erreger der europäischen Cercarien-Dermatitis des Menschen. Deutsche Tropenmedizinsche Zeitschrifte, 46, 481–497; 504–524.Google Scholar
  88. Szidat, L. & Wigand, R. (1934) Leitfaden der einheimischen Wurmkrankheiten des Menschen. Leipzig, 212 pp.Google Scholar
  89. Talbot, S.B. (1936) Studies on schistosome dermatitis. II. Morphological and life history studies on three dermatitis-producing schistosome cercariae, C. elvae Miller, 1923, C. stagnicolae n.sp., and C. physellae n.sp. American Journal of Hygiene, 23, 372–384.Google Scholar
  90. Tanaka, M. (1960a) Studies on Trichobilharzia physellae in Oki Islands. 1. Trichobilharzia physellae found in wild ducks in Oki Islands. Japanese Journal of Parasitology, 9, 596–603 (In Japanese, English summary p. 603).Google Scholar
  91. Tanaka, M. (1960b) Studies on Trichobilharzia physellae in Oki Islands. 2. Four kinds of schistosome cercariae parasitic in Lymnaea japonica in Oki Islands. Japanese Journal of Parasitology, 9, 604–609 (In Japanese, English summary p. 609).Google Scholar
  92. Tanaka, M. (1960c) Studies on Trichobilharzia physellae in Oki Islands. 3. Experimental infection of domestic ducks (Anas platyrhyncha domestica) with a schistosome cercaria parasitic in freshwater snails Lymnaea japonica. Japanese Journal of Parasitology, 9, 610–614 (In Japanese, English summary p. 614).Google Scholar
  93. Tanaka, M. (1960d) Studies on Trichobilharzia physellae in Oki Islands. 4. Experimental infection of the snails, Lymnaea japonica with the miracidia of Trichobilharzia physellae. Japanese Journal of Parasitology, 9, 615–619 (In Japanese, English summary p. 619).Google Scholar
  94. Tang, C.C. & Tang, C.T. (1964) Studies on the life-history of a dermatitis producing schistosome in Fukien and its infection experiments on the mammalian host. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Scholarum Superiorum Sinensium, Pars Biologica, 2, 113–151 (In Chinese, English abstract pp. 148–151).Google Scholar
  95. Taylor, E.L. &Baylis, H.A. (1930) Observations and experiments on a dermatitis-producing cercaria and on another cercaria from Limnaea stagnalis in Great Britain. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 24, 219–244.Google Scholar
  96. Tsai, S.T. et al. (1979) Cercarral dermatitis and its causative agents (schistosome trematodes) in Guangdong Province. Guangdong Jishengehong Xuehui Nianbao (Annual Bulletin of the Society of Parasitology, Guangdong Province), No. 1, pp. 44–45 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  97. Turner, B.C. & Threlfall, W. (1975) The metazoan parasites of green-winged teal (Anas crecca L.) and blue-winged teal (Anal discors L.) from Eastern Canada. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 42, 157–169.Google Scholar
  98. Uno, T. (1960) Studies on the schistosome dermatitis in Dogo Island, Oki Islands, with a description of a new species, Cercaria okiensis n.sp. Osaka lka Daigaku Zasshi, 20, 1031–1040 (In Japanese).Google Scholar
  99. Vogel, H. (1930) Cercarien-dermatitis in Deutschland. Klinische Wochenschrift, 9, 883–886.Google Scholar
  100. Wesenberg-Lund, C. (1934) Contributions to the development of the Trematoda Digenea. Part II. The biology of the freshwater cercariae in Danish freshwaters. Kongelige Dansk Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrifter, Naturvidenskabelig og Mathematisk Afdeling, 9 Raekke, 5(3), 1–223.Google Scholar
  101. Wright, C.A. (1971) Flukes and Snails. London: George Allen & Unwin; 168 pp.Google Scholar
  102. Wu, L.Y. (1953) A study of the life history of Trichobilharzia cameroni sp.nov. (Family Schistosomatidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 31, 351–373.Google Scholar
  103. Yamaguti, S. (1941) Studies on the helminth fauna of Japan. Part 32. Trematodes of birds, V. Japanese Journal of Zoology, 9, 321–341.Google Scholar
  104. Yamaguti, S. (1971) Synopsis of Digenetic Trematodes of Vertebrates. Tokyo: Keigaku Publishing Co., 2 vols, 1074 pp.Google Scholar
  105. Yamaguti, S. (1975) A synoptical review of life histories of digenetic trematodes of vertebrates with special reference to the morphology of their larval forms. Tokyo: Keigaku Publishing Co., 590 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr W. Junk Publishers 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Blair
    • 1
  • K.S. Islam
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of CanterburyChristchurch 1New Zealand
  2. 2.Department of Tropical Veterinary ScienceJames Cook University of North QueenslandTownsvilleAustralia

Personalised recommendations