Vegetatio

, Volume 104, Issue 1, pp 193–209 | Cite as

Response of plants to CO2 under water limited conditions

  • J. I. L. Morison
Response to CO2 Enrichment: Interaction With Soil and Atmospheric Conditions

Abstract

The influence of inefeased atmospheric CO2 on the interaction between plant growth and water use is proving to be one of the most profound impacts of the anthropogenic ‘Greenhouse Effect’. This paper illustrates the interaction between CO2 and water in plant growth at a range of scales. Most published work has concentrated on water use efficiency, especially at shorter time scales, and has shown large increases of leaf water use efficiency with increased CO2. However, the magnitude of the effect is variable, and does not consistently agree with predictions from simple leaf gas exchange considerations. The longer the time scales considered, the less the information and the more the uncertainty in the response to CO2, because of the additional factors that have to be considered, such as changes in leaf area, respiration of non-photosynthetic tissues and soil evaporation. The need for more detailed studies of the interactions between plant evaporation, water supply, water status and growth is stressed, as increased CO2 can affect all of these either directly, or indirectly through feedbacks with leaf gas exchange, carbon partitioning, leaf growth, canopy development and root growth.

Keywords

Increased CO2 concentration Water use efficiency Water potential Evaporation Transpiration Leaf area Growth 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acock, B. 1990. Effects of carbon dioxide on photosynthesis, plant growth and other processes. In: B. A. Kimball, N. J. Rosenberg, L. H. Allen, (eds.) Impact of carbon dioxide, trace gases and climate change on global agriculture, pp. 45–60. ASA Special Publication No. 53, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, S. J. 1990. Measurement and estimation of evaporation from soil under sparse barley crops in northern Syria. Agric. Forest Meteorol. 49: 291–309.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, L. H., Jones, P. & Jones, J. W. 1985. Rising atmospheric CO2 and evapotranspiration. In: Advances in Evapotranspiration, ASAA, pp. 13–27, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  4. Baker, J. T., Allen, L. H.Jr., Boote, K. J., Jones, P. & Jones, J. W. 1990. Rice photosynthesis and evapotranspiration in subambient, ambient and superambient carbon dioxide concentrations. Agronomy J. 42: 834–840.Google Scholar
  5. Bazzaz, F. A. & Carlson, R. W. 1984. The response of plants to elevated CO2. I. Competition among an assemblage of annuals at two levels of soil moisture. Oecologia 62: 196–198.Google Scholar
  6. Carlson, R. W. & Bazzaz, F. A. 1982. Photosynthetic and growth response to fumigation with SO2 at elevated CO2 forC 3 andC 4 plants. Oecologia 54: 50–54.Google Scholar
  7. Chaudhuri, U. N., Burnett, R. B., Kanemasu, E. T. & Kirkham, M. B. 1986a. Effect of elevated levels of CO2 on winter wheat under two moisture regimes. Report no. 29, Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide, US DoE, Washington, 77 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Chaudhuri, U. N., Burnett, R. B., Kirkham, M. B. & Kanemasu, E. T. 1986b. Effect of carbon dioxide on sorghum yield, root growth and water use. Agric. Forest Meteorol. 37: 109–122.Google Scholar
  9. Chaudhuri, U. N., Burnett, R. B., Kanemasu, E. T. & Kirkham, M. B. 1987. Effect of elevated levels of CO2 on winter wheat under two moisture regimes. Report no. 40, Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide, US DoE, Washington, 70 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Chaudhuri, U. N., Kanemasu, E. T. & Kirkham, M. B. 1989. Effect of elevated levels of CO2 on winter wheat under two moisture regimes. Report no. 50, Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide, US DoE, Washington, 49 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Chaudhuri, U. N., Kirkham, M. B. & Kanemasu, E. T. 1990a. Root growth of winter wheat under elevated carbon dioxide and drought. Crop Sci. 30: 853–857.Google Scholar
  12. Chaudhuri, U. N., Kirkham, M. B. & Kanemasu, E. T. 1990b. Carbon dioxide and water level effects on yield and water use of winter wheat. Agronomy J. 82: 637–641.Google Scholar
  13. Chaves, M. M. 1991. Effects of water deficits on carbon assimilation. Journal of Experimental Botany 42: 1–16.Google Scholar
  14. Conroy, J. P., Küppers, M., Küppers, B., Virgona, J. & Barlow, E. W. R. 1988. The influence of CO2 enrichment, phosphorus deficiency and water stress on the growth, conductance and water use ofPinus radiata D. Don. Plant, Cell and Environ. 11: 91–98.Google Scholar
  15. Cure, J. D. & Acock, B. 1986. Crop responses to carbon dioxide doubling: a literature survey. Agric. Forest Meteorol. 38: 127–145.Google Scholar
  16. Del, Castillo, D., Acock, B., Reddy, V. R. & Acock, M. C. 1989. Elongation and branching of roots on soybean plants in a carbon dioxide-enriched aerial environment. Agronomy J. 81: 692–695.Google Scholar
  17. Drake, B. G., Curtis, P. S., Arp, W. J., Leadley, P. W., Johnson, J. & Whigham, D. 1988. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on Chesapeake Bay Wetlands III. Ecosystems and whole plant responses in the first year of exposure, April-November 1987. Report no. 44, Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide, US DoF, Washington, 101 pp.Google Scholar
  18. Drake, B. G., Arp, W. J. Balduman, L., Cousimano, R., Dacey, J., D'Abundo, D., Hogan, K., Long, S., Pockman, W. T., Utley, P., Villegas, A. C. & Whigham, D. 1990. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on Chesapeake Bay Wetlands V. Ecosystems and whole plant responses. April-November 1989. Report no. 55, Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide, US DoE, Washington, 119 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Farquhar, G. D. & Sharkey, T. D. 1982. Stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 33: 317–345.Google Scholar
  20. Fischer, R. A. & Turner, N. C. 1978. Plant productivity in the arid and semi-arid zones. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 29: 277–317.Google Scholar
  21. Garbutt, K., Williams, W. E. & Bazzaz, F. A. 1990. Analysis of the differential response of five annuals to elevated CO2 during growth. Ecology 71: 1185–1194.Google Scholar
  22. Gifford, R. M. 1979. Growth and yield of CO2-enriched wheat under water-limited conditions. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 6: 367–78.Google Scholar
  23. Gifford, R. M. 1988. Direct effects of higher carbon dioxide concentrations on vegetation. In: G. I., Pearman, (ed) Greenhouse: planning for climate change, CSIRO, Australia, 752 pp.Google Scholar
  24. Gifford, R. M. & Morison, J. I. L. 1985. Photosynthesis, water use and growth of C4 grass-stand at high CO2 concentration. Photosynth. Res. 7: 69–76.Google Scholar
  25. Goudriaan, J. & Bijlsma, R. J. 1987. Effect of CO2 enrichment on growth of faba beans at low levels of water supply. Neth. J. Agric. Sci. 35: 189–191.Google Scholar
  26. Goudriaan, J. & Unsworth, M. H. 1990. Implications of increased carbon dioxide and climate change for agricultural productivity and water resources. In: B. A. Kimball, N. J. Rosenberg, L. H. Allen (eds) Impact of carbon dioxide, trace gases and climate change on global agriculture pp. 111–130, ASA Special Publication No. 53, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  27. Goudriaan, J., van, Laar, H. H., van, Keulen, H. & Louwerse, W. 1984. Simulation of the effect of increased atmospheric CO2 on assimilation and transpiration of a closed crop canopy. Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. 33: 355–356.Google Scholar
  28. Gowing, D. J. G., Davies, W. J. & Jones, H. G. 1990. A positive root-sourced signal as an indicator of soil drying in apple,Malus x domestica Borkh. J. Exp. Bot. 41: 1535–1540.Google Scholar
  29. Houghton, J. T., Jenkins, G. J. & Ephraums, J. J. 1990. Climate Change: the IPCC Scientific Assessment. Report prepared for IPCC by Working Group 1. Cambridge University Press, 364 pp.Google Scholar
  30. Idso, S. B., Kimball, B. A. & Anderson, M. G. 1985. Atmospheric CO2 enrichment of water hyacinths: effects on transpiration and water use efficiency. Water Resoures Research 21: 1787–1790.Google Scholar
  31. Jacobs, C. M. J. & de Bruin, H. A. R. 1992. The sensitivity of regional transpiration to land-surface characteristics: significance of feedback. J. of Climatology (In press).Google Scholar
  32. Jarvis, P. G. & McNaughton, K. G. 1985. Stomatal control of transpiration: scaling up from leaf to region. Adv. Ecol. Res. 15: 1–49.Google Scholar
  33. Jones, P., Allen, L. H., Jones, J. W., Boote, K. J. & Campbell, W. J. 1984. Soybean canopy growth, photosynthesis, and transpiration responses to whole-season carbon dioxide enrichment. Agronomy J. 76: 633–637.Google Scholar
  34. Kimball, B. A. 1983. Carbon dioxide and agricultural yield: an assemblage and analysis of 770 prior observations. WCL Report 14, Water Conservation Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, Phoenix, Arizona.Google Scholar
  35. Kimball, B. A. & Idso, S. B. 1983. Increasing atmospheric CO2 effects on crop yield, water use and climate. Agric. Water Management. 7: 55–72.Google Scholar
  36. Kirkham, M. B. (and 11 others) 1990. Rangeland plant response to elevated CO2. Report no. 56. Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide, US DoE, Washington, 80 pp.Google Scholar
  37. Lemon, E. R. 1983. (Ed.) CO2 and plants: the response of plants to rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Westview Press, Colorado.Google Scholar
  38. Martin, P., Rosenberg, N. J. & McKenney, M. S. 1989. Sensitivity of evapotranspiration in a wheat field, a forest, and a grassland to changes in climate and direct effects of carbon dioxide. Climatic Change 14: 117–151.Google Scholar
  39. McCree, K. J. 1988. Sensitivity of sorghum grain yield to ontogenetic changes in respiration coefficients. Crop Sci. 28: 114–120.Google Scholar
  40. McNaughton, K. G. & Jarvis, P. G. 1983. Predicting effects of vegetation changes on transpiration and evaporation. pp. 1–47. In: T. T., Kozlowski, (ed), Water deficits and plant growth, Vol. 7, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  41. McNaughton, K. G. & Jarvis, P. G. 1991. Effects of spatial scale on stomatal control of transpiration. Agric. Forest Meteorol. 54: 279–301.Google Scholar
  42. Morison, J. I. L. 1985. Sensitivity of stomata and water use efficiency to high CO2. Plant, Cell and Environment 8: 467–474.Google Scholar
  43. Morison, J. I. L. 1987. Intercellular CO2 concentration and stomatal response to CO2. In: E., Zeiger, I., Cowan & G. D., Farquhar (eds) Stomatal Function, pp. 229–251. Stanford University Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
  44. Morison, J. I. L. 1989. Plant growth in increased atmospheric CO2: In: R. Fantechi & A. Ghazi, (eds) CO2 and other greenhouse gases: climatic and associated impacts, pp. 228–244. Commisison of the Economic Communities, D. Reidel.Google Scholar
  45. Morison, J. I. L. & Gifford, R. M. 1983. Stomatal sensitivity of carbon dioxide and humidity. A comparison of twoC 3 and twoC 4 grass species. Plant Physiol. 71: 789–796.Google Scholar
  46. Morison, J. I. L. & Gifford, R. M. 1984a. Plant growth and water use with limited water supply in high CO2 concentrations. I. Leaf area, water use and transpiration. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 11: 361–374.Google Scholar
  47. Morison, J. I. L. & Gifford, R. M. 1984b. Plant growth and water use with limited water supply in high CO2 concentrations. II. Plant dry weight, partitioning and water use efficiency. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 11: 375–384.Google Scholar
  48. Nijs, I., Impens, I. & Behaeghe, T. 1988. Effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration onLolium perenne andTrifolium repens canopies in the course of a terminal drought stress period. Can. J. Bot. 67: 2720–2725.Google Scholar
  49. Nijs, I., Impens, I. & Behaeghe, T. 1989. Leaf and canopy responses ofLolium perenne to long-term elevated atmospheric carbon-dioxide concentration. Planta 177: 312–320.Google Scholar
  50. Oberbauer, S. O., Strain, B. R. & Fetcher, N. 1985. Effect of CO2-enrichment on seedling physiology and growth of two tropical tree species. Physiol. Plant. 65: 352–364.Google Scholar
  51. Overdieck, D. 1989. The effects of preindustrial and predicted future atmospheric CO2 concentration onLyonia mariana L. D. Don. Func. Ecol. 3: 569–576.Google Scholar
  52. Paez, A., Hellmers, H. & Strain, B. R. 1983. CO2 enrichment, drought stress and growth of Alaska pea plants (Pisum sativum). Physiol. Plant. 58: 161–165.Google Scholar
  53. Paez, A., Hellmers, H. & Strain, B. R. 1984. Carbon dioxide enrichment and water stress interaction on growth of two tomato cultivars. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.) 102: 687–693.Google Scholar
  54. Parkinson, K. J. & Penman, H. L. 1970. A possible source of error in the estimation of stomatal resistance. J. Exp. Bot. 21: 405–409.Google Scholar
  55. Penman, H. L. & Schofield, R. K. 1951. Some physical aspects of assimilation and transpiration. Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 5: 115–129.Google Scholar
  56. Potvin, C. & Strain, B. R. 1985. Photosynthetic response to growth temperature and CO2 enrichment in two species ofC 4 grasses. Can. J. Bot. 63: 483–487.Google Scholar
  57. Rogers, H. H., Bingham, G. E., Cure, J. D., Smith, J. M. & Surano, K. A. 1983. Response of selected plant species to elevated CO2 in the field. J. Env. Qual. 12: 569–574.Google Scholar
  58. Sasek, T. W. & Strain, B. R. 1990. Implications of atmospheric CO2 enrichment and climatic change for the geographical distribution of two introduced vines in the USA. Climatic Change 16: 31–51.Google Scholar
  59. Shuttleworth, W. J. & Wallace, J. S. 1985. Evaporation from sparse crops-an energy combination equation theory. Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 111: 839–855.Google Scholar
  60. Sinclair, T. R., Tanner, C. B. & Bennett, J. M. 1984. Water use efficiency in crop production, BioScience 34: 36–40.Google Scholar
  61. Sionit, N. & Patterson, D. T. 1985. Responses ofC 4 grasses to atmospheric CO2 enrichment. II Effect of water stress. Crop Sci. 25: 533–537.Google Scholar
  62. Sionit, N., Hellmers, H. & Strain, B. R. 1980. Growth and yield of wheat under CO2 enrichment and water stress. Crop. Sci. 20: 687–690.Google Scholar
  63. Sionit, N., Strain, B. R., Hellmers, H. & Kramer, P. J. 1981. Effects of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and water stress on water relations of wheat. Bot. Gaz. 142: 191–196.Google Scholar
  64. Smith, S. D., Strain, B. R. & Sharkey, T. D. 1987. Effects of CO2 enrichment on four Great Basin grasses. Func. Ecol. 1: 139–143.Google Scholar
  65. Strain, B. R. & Cure, J. D. 1985. Direct effects of increasing carbon dioxide on vegetation (Eds.). DOE/ER-0238. U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research, Carbon Dioxide Research Division, Washington.Google Scholar
  66. Tanner, C. B. 1981. Transpiration efficiency of potato. Agronomy J. 73: 59–64.Google Scholar
  67. Tanner, C. B. & Sinclair, T. R. 1983. Efficient water use in crop production: research or re-search? In: H. M., Taylor, W. R., Jordan & T. R., Sinclair, (eds). Limitation to Efficient Water Use in Crop Production, pp. 1–28. ASA/CSSA/SSSA, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  68. Terashima, J., Wong, S. C., Osmond, C. B. & Farquhar, G. D. 1988. Characterisation of non-uniform photosynthesis induced by abscisic acid in leaves having different mesophyll anatomies. Plant Cell Physiol. 29: 385–394.Google Scholar
  69. Teskey, R. O. & Shrestha, R. B. 1985. A relationship between carbon dioxide, photosynthetic efficiency and shade tolerance. Physiol. Plant. 63: 126–132.Google Scholar
  70. Tissue, D. T. & Oechel, W. C. 1987. Response ofEriophorum vaginatum to elevated CO2 and temperature in the Alaskan tossock tundra. Ecology 68: 401–410.Google Scholar
  71. Tolley, L. C. & Strain, B. R. 1984. Effects of CO2 enrichment and water stress on growth ofLiquidambar styraciflua andPinus taeda seedlings. Can. J. Bot. 62: 2135–2139.Google Scholar
  72. Tolley, L. C. & Strain, B. R. 1985. Effects of CO2 enrichment and water stress on gas exchange ofLiquidambar styraciflua andPinus taeda seedlings grown under different irradiance levels. Oecologia 65: 166–172.Google Scholar
  73. Valle, R., Mishoe, J. W., Jones, J. W. & Allen, L. H. 1985. Transpiration rate and water use efficiency of soybean leaves adapted to different CO2 environments. Crop Sci. 25: 477–482.Google Scholar
  74. van, Bavel, C. H. M. 1974. Antitranspirant action of carbon dioxide on intact sorghum plants. Crop Sci. 14: 208–212.Google Scholar
  75. Villalobos, F. J. & Fereres, E. 1990. Evaporation measuremets beneath corn, cotton and sunflower canopies. Agronomy J. 82: 1153–1159.Google Scholar
  76. von, Caemmerer, S. & Farquhar, G. D. 1981. Some relationships between the biochemistry of photosynthesis and the gas exchange of leaves. Planta 153: 376–387.Google Scholar
  77. Warrick, R. A., Gifford, R. M. & Parry, M. L. 1986. CO2, Climatic change and agriculture. Assessing the response of food crops to the direct effects of increased CO2 and climatic change. In: B., Bolin, B., Döös, J., Jäger and R. A., Warrick, (eds), The Greenhouse Effect, Climatic and Ecosystems, SCOPE 29, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.Google Scholar
  78. Whiteman, P. C. & Koller, D. 1967. Interactions of carbon dioxide concentration, light intensity and temperature on plant resistances to water vapour and carbon dioxide diffusion. New Phytol. 66: 463–473.Google Scholar
  79. Wong, S. C. 1979. Elevated atmospheric partial pressure of CO2 and plant growth. 1. Interactions of nitrogen nutrition and photosynthetic capacity inC 3 andC 4 plants. Oecologia 44: 68–74.Google Scholar
  80. Wong, S. C., Cowan, I. R. & Farquhar, G. D. 1978. Leaf conductance in relation to assimilation inEucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. Influence of irradiance and partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Plant Physiol. 62: 670–674.Google Scholar
  81. Wong, S. C., Cowan, I. R. & Farquhar, G. D. 1979. Stomatal conductance correlates with photosynthetic capacity. Nature 282: 424–426.Google Scholar
  82. Woodward, F. I. 1987. Stomatal numbers are sensitive to increases in CO2 from pre-industrial levels. Nature 327: 617–618.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. I. L. Morison
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MeteorologyUniversity of ReadingReadingUK

Personalised recommendations