Recommendations for planting pines usually include providing a competition-free site to assure establishment and good early growth. When combining pines and pasture in agroforestry systems, the possibility of planting pines directly into a pasture sod without site treatment would be economically desirable. In south Georgia, USA, slash pine (Pinus elliottii) was planted into a pasture sod and on well-disked sites; both with and without annual fertilization. Partial weed control was maintained in subsequent years on the cultivated treatments and the pasture sod was mowed periodically.
Slash pine establishment and growth rate through 5 years generally was not different among treatments. Survival was 96% intially and 86% after 5 years. The pines grew rapidly with no measurable advantage from cultivation or fertilization.
This alternative to providing a competition-free environment needs to be tested under differing climates, soils, tree species, and pasture species. It could be a suitable technique in various situations and of special interest to small, nonindustrial landowners.
Key wordsagroforestry site preparation pasture Pinus elliottii Paspalum notatum
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Broerman FS, Sarigumba TI and Immel MJ (1983) Site preparation and slash pine productivity. pp 131–149. In: The Managed Slash Pine Ecosystem Symp Proc. Univ Fla, GainesvilleGoogle Scholar
- 2.Fisher RF and Adrian F (1981) Bahiagrass impairs slash pine seedling growth. Tree Planter's Notes 32 (2): 19–21Google Scholar
- 3.Haines LW, Maki TE and Sanderford SG (1975) The effect of mechanical site preparation treatments on soil productivity and tree (Pinus taeda L. and P. elliottii Englm. var elliottii) growth. pp 379–395. In: Proc Fourth No Amer For Soils Conf. Laval Univ, Quebec, CanadaGoogle Scholar
- 4.Hart RH, Hughes RH, Lewis CE and Monson WG (1970) Effect of nitrogen and shading on yield and quality of grasses grown under young slash pines. Agron J 62:285–287Google Scholar
- 5.Hughes RH and Jackson JE (1962) Fertilization of young slash pine in a cultivated plantation. USDA For Serv Southeast For Exp Stn Res Pap 148, 14 pGoogle Scholar
- 6.Lennartz MR and McMinn JW (1973) Growth of two varieties of slash pine on prepared sites in south Florida: 10-year results. USDA For Serv Southeast For Exp Stn Res Pap SE-103, 10 pGoogle Scholar
- 7.Lewis CE, Burton GW, Monson WG and McCormick WC (1983) Integration of pines, pasture, and cattle in south Georgia, USA. Agrofor Systems 1:277–297Google Scholar
- 8.Lewis CE, Burton GW, Monson WG and McCormick WC (1984) Integration of pines and pastures for hay and grazing. Agrofor Systems 2:31–41Google Scholar
- 9.Lewis CE, McCormick WC and White WE (1972) Cultivation, grazing, insects, and disease affect yield of slash pine planted in sod. USDA For Serv Southeast For Exp Stn Res Note SE-174, 8 pGoogle Scholar
- 10.Lewis CE, Murray BR and White WE (1976) Black plastic as a mulch around slash pine seedlings. Amer Christmas Tree J 20(1): 11–13Google Scholar
- 11.Outcalt KW (1983) Mechanical site preparation improves growth of genetically improved and unimproved slash pine on a Florida flatwoods site. pp 11–13. In: Proc Second Biennial Southern Silvicultural Res Conf. USDA For Serv Southeast For Exp Stn Gen Tech Rep SE-24Google Scholar
- 12.Percival NS and Knowles RL (1983) Agroforestry: Expanding horizons. pp 37–40. In: Proc 1983 Raukura Farmer's Conf, Raukura, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
- 13.Pienaar LV, Rheney JW and Shiver BD (1983) Response to control of competing vegetation in site prepared slash pine plantations. South J Appl For 7:38–45Google Scholar
- 14.Sarigumba TI and Anderson GA (1979) Response of slash pine to different spacings and site preparation treatments. South J Appl For 3:91–94Google Scholar
- 15.Smith LF and Schmidtling RC (1970) Cultivation and fertilization speed early growth of planted southern pines. Tree Planter's Notes 21(1):1–3Google Scholar
- 16.Stransky JJ and Halls LK (1981) Forage and pine growth with clearcutting and site preparation. pp 343–348. In: Proc First Biennial Southern Silvicultural Res Conf. USDA For Serv South For Exp Stn Gen Tech Rep SO-34Google Scholar
- 17.Tustin JR, Knowles RL and Klomp BK (1979) Forest farming: A multiple land-use production system in New Zealand. For Ecol and Manage 2:169–189Google Scholar